Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Original Article ㅣ 2021-06-30 1 834 301
Abstract : Intra-articular injection of ELHLD peptide is considered to have a therapeutic effect in osteoarthritis (OA) through the inhibition of transforming growth factor–β1. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of intra-articular injections of high-dose ELHLD peptide (100 μg/kg) in canine stifle OA. Six client-owned dogs diagnosed with stifle OA were included. Selected dogs were treated with an intra- articular injection of high-dose ELHLD peptide (100 μg/kg). Outcome measures, including orthopedic examination, gait analysis, and Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) score, were evaluated four times after injection. Orthopedic examination, gait analysis, and owner’s assessment (CBPI) improved significantly from 4 weeks after injection. In conclusion, we obtained sufficient evidence from this small sample that high-dose ELHLD peptide improves clinical signs of canine OA not only through subjective assessment but also through objective evaluation.
Original Article ㅣ 2021-06-30 0 1796 254
Abstract : This study was designed to investigate the characteristics of corneal ulcers in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Medical records of dogs that had been diagnosed with corneal ulcers and chronic kidney disease at Haemaru Referral Animal Hospital between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2016 were investigated. A control group was randomly selected during the same time period. This group included patients with corneal ulcers but no evidence of systemic disease. The mean healing time of superficial corneal ulcers in the CKD group was 21.0 ± 15.0 days. This was a significantly longer healing time than was observed in the control group (11.0 ± 6.6 days, p = 0.019). The incidence rates of uveitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in the CKD group were significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.026, respectively). Additionally, non-healing ulcers had significantly elevated white blood cell counts, while those with healing ulcers had WBC counts within the normal range in CKD group (p = 0.000). This study revealed that corneal ulcers in CKD patients would be delayed epithelial healing process and accompanied by ocular disease which affected to corneal healing compared to non-CKD patients.
Original Article ㅣ 2021-06-30 0 619 69
Abstract : Intradermal skin test (IDST) is generally considered a useful tool in identifying causal allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. Currently, multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST), an in vitro testing method for allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, is being used as an alternative method. However, there are no reports comparing the IDST and MAST results in the same dogs. This study compared the results of both tests to evaluate the agreement and correlation between them. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the MAST were 76.2%, 64%, and 66.7%, respectively. Moderate positive predicted value (PPV, 50-75%) or high sensitivity (80-100%) were identified for indoor allergens, such as cat epithelia, house dust, and house dust mites. In contrast, high negative predicted value (NPV, 93.3-100%) and specificity (60-100%) were observed for environmental allergens and fungi. Although the agreement between IDST and MAST for all allergens was fair (κ = 0.301), that for each allergen was poor (κ < 0.01), except for birch (κ = 0.158). Spearman’s rank correlation analysis revealed a low correlation between the MAST and IDST results (ρ = 0.308, p = 0.001). As compared to the IDST results, the MAST results did not identify the causative allergens sufficiently. IDST may not be performed for environmental allergens and fungi with high NPV and specificity if the MAST result is negative, but it may have to be performed for indoor allergens with moderate PPV and high sensitivity when the MAST result is positive.
Original Article ㅣ 2021-06-30 4 2942 970
Abstract : Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a genetically predisposed inflammatory and pruritic skin disease presenting characteristic clinical features in dogs. Despite oclacitinib and lokivetmab being commonly used, no study has compared their efficacies in CAD. This study aimed to compare the efficacy, safety, and control of CAD-associated pruritus and skin lesions between oclacitinib and lokivetmab. It also investigated whether switching to lokivetmab from oclacitinib or prednisolone had any benefits. Twenty-five client-owned dogs, newly diagnosed with CAD, were allocated to the oclacitinib (n = 20) and lokivetmab (n = 5) groups and administered oclacitinib (0.4-0.6 mg/kg orally, twice daily for 14 days, then once daily) and lokivetmab (2 mg/kg subcutaneously, every month) for 8 weeks, respectively. The switching group included five dogs previously administered with oclacitinib (n = 4) or prednisolone (n = 1) who were switched to lokivetmab directly at the start of the study. The pruritus visual analog scale (PVAS) and Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-04) values were surveyed at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Oclacitinib and lokivetmab significantly reduced the PVAS and CADESI- 04 scores. Switching from oclacitinib or prednisolone to lokivetmab maintained the severity of pruritus (4 weeks: p = 0.068; 8 weeks: p = 0.068) and dermatitis (4 weeks: p = 0.144; 8 weeks: p = 0.068) at the levels measured at baseline. Thus, both oclacitinib and lokivetmab reduced CAD-associated pruritus by a similar degree. Switching to lokivetmab maintained the severity of pruritus and dermatitis at the same level as the previous treatment.
Original Article ㅣ 2021-06-30 0 568 153
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the contrast effect if a saline flush following low-volume contrast medium bolus improves vascular and parenchymal enhancement using a saphenous vein in abdominal CT for small animals. Six clinically healthy beagle dogs underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced CT. They were divided into nine groups (each group, n = 6), according to the volume of contrast medium 1, 2, and 3 mL/kg, and volume of the saline solution 0, 5, and 10 mL. Dynamic CT scanning was performed at the hepatic hilum level. The maximum contrast enhancement, time to maximum enhancement, and time to equilibrium phase were calculated from the time attenuation curves. Mean attenuation values for all groups were measured in the aorta, portal vein, and liver. After contrast enhancement, grading of image quality regarding surrounding artifacts and evaluation of the hepatic hilum structures was performed. For comparison of the effect of the contrast material and saline solution doses, differences in mean attenuation values between the contrast medium 2 mL/kg without saline flush group and the remaining groups, and between contrast medium 3 mL/kg without saline flush group and the remaining groups, were analyzed for statistical significance. There were no significant differences between with and without saline flushing at the same contrast medium dose groups. There were no significant differences in peak values between the 3 mL/kg dose of contrast medium alone and the 2 mL/kg dose of contrast medium with saline solution flush. However, there was a significant difference in peak values between the 3 mL/kg dose of the contrast medium without the saline flush group and the 2 mL/kg dose of the contrast medium alone group. Grades of the artifacts were not significantly different in the saline flush regardless of the dose of the contrast medium. Using 2 mL/kg of contrast medium with saline solution flush resulted in similar liver parenchyma attenuation, compared with using 3 mL/kg of contrast medium without saline solution flush. In CT evaluation of hepatic parenchymal diseases, using 2 mL/kg of contrast medium with saline solution flush may yield decreased risk of contrast nephropathy and cost-saving.
Case Report ㅣ 2021-06-30 0 4280 267
Abstract : A 2-year-old intact female Maltese dog was presented with generalized involuntary tremors and nystagmus without regular direction. The dog was conscious the whole time while it was trembling. Its involuntary tremors were alleviated at rest or during sleep. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed asymmetric hydrocephalus and caudal occipital malformation. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, a trace of protein was found and total nucleated cell count (TNCC) was slightly increased. However, infectious pathogens were not found. In complete blood count, there was a mild leukocytosis. After the patient received anticonvulsants (midazolam, phenobarbital, KBr), diuretics (furosemide) with an anti-inflammatory drug (prednisolone, 0.5 mg/kg PO bid), and a proton-pump inhibitor (omeprazole), it showed no improvement. The patient was tentatively diagnosed with corticosteroid responsive tremor syndrome. So the anticonvulsants and diuretics were discontinued and the dose of prednisolone was increased to an immunosuppressive dose (1 mg/kg PO bid). After administering the immunosuppressive dose of prednisolone, the patient did not show nystagmus. Its tremors were much alleviated. However, they did not disappear. Five weeks later, the patient showed gradual improvement but still was trembling when moving around. Nine weeks later, its tremors were similar to before. So diazepam (0.3 mg/kg PO sid) was added to the treatment. After that, its tremors were alleviated more. Prednisolone and diazepam were maintained for about five months, with tapering of the dose of prednisolone (until 0.5 mg/kg PO sid). About 7 months later after the treatment was started, the dog was trembling rarely except when it was excited. Therefore, diazepam was discontinued. This case describes a refractory white dog shaker syndrome successfully managed with long-term administration of a steroid and diazepam.
Case Report ㅣ 2021-06-30 0 689 214
Abstract : A 5-year-old castrated male Maine Coon cat presented with chronic otitis on the right ear. The clinical signs, scratching and head shaking, were recurrent despite symptomatic treatment, including antibiotics and antifungal agents. Video otoscopic examination and computed tomography (CT) examination revealed a polyp in the right ear canal. The polyp was removed via per-endoscopic trans-tympanic traction (PTT) with a grasping forceps. After treatment, Horner’s syndrome occurred in the right eye but spontaneously resolved a week later. The mass was diagnosed as inflammatory polyp with a fibrovascular stroma containing plasma cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. All clinical signs were improved, and no recurrence was observed after 3 weeks of follow-up. This case report demonstrates that CT scan is effective in identifying the margin of polyp and PTT technique is non-invasive method for treating inflammatory polyp in cats without severe complications.
Case Report ㅣ 2021-06-30 0 899 146
Abstract : 3-year-old spayed female beagle dog was presented with epiphora, severe hemorrhagic and purulent ocular discharge in the right eye (OD). A reflux of the discharge through the other canaliculi, associated with signs of chronic inflammation, was observed on cytology. Dacryocystorhinography revealed retention of contrast media ventral to the lower punctum, indicating complete obstruction and the potential presence of radiolucent foreign body. Ocular discharge subsided after the first treatment, including flushing of the nasolacrimal duct and application of topical antibiotics and corticosteroids, but clinical symptoms of the dacryocystitis waxed and waned thereafter. Surgical treatment was delayed for 8 months due to Dirofilaria immitis infection, and topical treatment and monthly flushing were maintained. On the day of operation, a foreign body was released through the fistula, while flushing for disinfection under general anesthesia, just before the surgery. Dacryocystectomy was performed to remove necrotic tissue and residual foreign body around the nasolacrimal cyst. Upon histopathologic findings, the removed foreign body was considered to be a plant, and the nasolacrimal cyst was comprised of chronic active ulcerative inflammation and necrotic tissues. At the 1-week recheck, improvement of epiphora and ocular discharge and healing of the surgical site was noted. In conclusion, nasolacrimal duct foreign body can be considered in recurrent dacryocystitis, despite nasolacrimal flushing and topical medication. In this study, dacryocystectomy was curative without recurrence of dacryocystitis or epiphora.
Case Report ㅣ 2021-06-30 0 917 60
Abstract : A 5-year-old, intact male, poodle dog with right external auditory canal obstruction and subaural mass was presented. Physical examination revealed that right external auditory canal opening was absent and right head tilt was identified. Aspiration in right subaural mass revealed a small amount of dark brown exudate. Streptococcus canis and Staphylococcus spp. were identified on the microbial culture. Radiography of the skull was revealed absence of air-filled ear canal at the right external ear canal (EEC) level. Computed tomography (CT) revealed well capsulated, hypoattenuated mass in the right EEC region. On the contrast enhanced CT images, rim enhancement around the mass and ear canal obstruction were identified. Fluid attenuated material filled with right bulla. Mild thickening of the right tympanic bulla wall with mild lytic lesion of the ventral wall were found. Based on the images findings, the case was tentatively diagnosed as right external auditory canal atresia with otitis media. Total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy was performed. The entire ear canal was removed, numerous hair in the canal and the thickening wall were founded. Right ear canal was sent for histopathological evaluation and found to otitis externa. The patient was followed up for two weeks and there were no complications. This report described the CT diagnosis of right EEC atresia with otitis media rarely reported in small breed dogs.
Case Report ㅣ 2021-06-30 0 561 75
Abstract : A 6-year-old, spayed female, Maltese dog with tachypnea and dry cough was presented to Gyeongsang National University Veterinary Medical Teaching hospital. On physical examination, its respiration rate was 132 per minute. Decreased partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and hyperlactatemia were found on arterial blood gas analysis. Its diastolic blood pressure was 80 mmHg. Auscultation revealed arrhythmia. Electrocardiogram revealed P pulmonale, P mitrale, and ventricular premature complexes. Thoracic radiographs revealed mild enlargement of both atrium and moderate enlargement of the left ventricular. There was also a moderate alveolar pattern in the right and caudal part of the left cranial lung lobe. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed enlargement of generalized four chambers without remarkable findings of valvular degeneration. M-mode echocardiography showed decreased left ventricular fractional shortening and enlarged left ventricular internal diameter at both end-systolic and end-diastolic. Color-flow Doppler imaging revealed eccentric turbulent flow starting below the left ventricular outflow tract and extending into the left atrium during systole. Spectral Doppler recordings revealed a high velocity flow through the mitral, tricuspid, aorta, and pulmonic regurgitation. Restrictive transmitral flow revealed high E-wave velocity, short E-wave deceleration time, and reduced A-wave velocity. There was also low ejection velocity thorough left ventricular out tract flow. Based on echocardiographic examination, dilated cardiomyopathy was the tentative diagnosis. The dog was medicated with inotropes, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and diuretics. At the 10-day following-up, the dog died suddenly. This report describes echocardiographic diagnosis and prognosis of dilated cardiomyopathy rarely reported in small breed dogs.