Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Original Article ㅣ 2022-08-31 0 379 47
Abstract : The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of 0.6 and 0.8 mm cerclage wires with the 1.0 mm cerclage wire in the twist, single-loop, double-loop, double-wrap, and loop/twist knot methods. Six stainless steel cerclage wires of various diameters in different knot methods were tied round a customized jig mounted on a load testing machine. The initial tension, initial stiffness, and yield load were evaluated. The failure mode of each cerclage was observed. For each wire size, the double-loop, double-wrap, and loop/twist knots showed significantly greater initial stiffness, and yield load than those seen with twist and single-loop knots. The single-loop knot showed the least initial stiffness regardless of the diameter. As the cerclage wire diameter increased, the cerclage tended to show significantly greater initial stiffness, and yield load. Failure modes varied depending on the knot configurations. Single-loop knots of smaller-diameter wires less than 1 mm had similar or lower initial tension, initial stiffness, and yield load than a twist knot. Owing to the variance in mechanical properties, the clinical application of the knot type should depend on the diameter of the cerclage wire.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-08-31 0 224 41
Abstract : The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence, occurrence pattern, and clinical outcomes of transfixation pinning and casting (TPC) for fractures in Korean native calves, and to identify the advantages of the procedure. The study investigated 52 cases of bone fractures documented from January 2017 to December 2020. Hindlimb fractures (72%) were the most common in bone fractures (n = 50). The distribution of fractures was highest in the tibia (n = 15), followed by the metatarsal (n = 12), femur (n = 9), radius/ulna (n = 8), metacarpal (n = 3), humerus (n = 3), mandible (n = 1), and caudal vertebrae (n = 1). All cases were diagnosed via radiographic evaluation. Closed fractures (86%) were the most common, followed by open fractures (14%). Surgery was performed on 34 calves using intramedullary pin (IM pin), TPC, cross pin, flexible wire (F-wire), and/or plate fixation. The rest of the calves were treated with external coaptation (n = 12) or were not treated (n = 6). Subsequently, 24 calves with follow-up records were evaluated in the bone fracture cases (n = 50). Bone union was observed in 15 (62%) calves; 3 (12%) calves showed non-union; 4 (16%) calves were dead after surgery; and 2 (8%) calves were euthanized at the owner’s request. Among the 24 follow-up surgery cases, the most successful cases were tibia fractures (75%) surgically treated using TPC and/or IM pin. These findings suggest that TPC surgery is effective in the management of fractures in Korean native calves.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-08-31 1 321 156
Abstract : To determine the prevalence of breed, age, and sex of canine primary glaucoma by comparing previous reports in Korea. We included the medical records of dogs diagnosed with primary glaucoma who visited the veterinary medical teaching hospital of Seoul National University (SNU) from January 2011 to December 2020 and investigated their breed, age, and sex. All the patients underwent a full ophthalmic examination. We analyzed the results using a binary logistic regression analysis based on the Jindo dog, which was close to the mean value of the primary glaucoma incidence rate. Of the 14,587 dogs treated at the veterinary medical teaching hospital of SNU, 107 (0.73%) were diagnosed with primary glaucoma. Glaucoma occurred in 14 breeds, including the American Cocker Spaniel, Shih Tzu, Maltese, Pomeranian, Jindo dog, Mixed Breed, Pekinese, Toy Poodle, Samoyed, Shiba Inu, Miniature Pinscher, Boston Terrier, Labrador retriever, and Yorkshire Terrier. The mean age of onset of primary glaucoma was 7.8 ± 2.3 years. Primary glaucoma was observed in 53 spayed females, 11 females, 38 castrated males, and five males. Regardless of neutralization, the ratio of females to males was 1.5:1. This study showed that primary glaucoma was significantly higher in American Cocker Spaniels and higher in Shih Tzus than other breeds in Korea; they had the highest incidence of primary glaucoma at 7 and 8 years of age, respectively. Therefore, the two breeds should be carefully monitored for the occurrence of primary glaucoma when they approach 7 years of age.
Case Report ㅣ 2022-08-31 0 498 74
Abstract : A 10-year-old female Pomeranian weighing 2.25 kg with a history of gradual weight loss and an intraabdominal mass confirmed with ultrasonography at a local hospital was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Jeju National University. Physical examination revealed abdominal distention. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycemia (57 mg/dL; reference range, 60-110 mg/dL). On abdominal ultrasonography, a heterogeneously hyperechoic mass measuring 7.51 × 10.6 cm was found at the level of the left kidney. Computed tomographic findings showed a unilateral left kidney mass with a 10-cm diameter and vessel contrast enhancement in the corticomedullary phase. Unilateral nephrectomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed because left ovary enlargement was observed during surgery. The renal mass was adjacent to the aorta and vena cava and attached to a portion of the small intestine, greater omentum, and left ovary. The mass was huge (12.5 × 10 × 7 cm) and was 16.5% of the body weight. Histopathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and ovarian metastasis. After surgery, clinical signs improved remarkably, and serum glucose level returned to normal. As RCC is resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, the owner decided not to proceed with postoperative adjunctive therapies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of ovarian metastasis with huge RCC in a dog.
Case Report ㅣ 2022-08-31 0 214 75
Abstract : Intravenous catheterization is a common procedure in human and veterinary medicine. Occasionally, a catheter might break within the blood vessel, and the fragment may cause embolization, infections, or other severe complications, and therefore must be removed promptly. For a successful and low-risk removal, the fragment should be localized accurately; however, ultrasound may be challenging to perform on small dogs due to inadequate probes. We report the case of a 2-year-old, 2.6 kg, intact female toy poodle that presented to the veterinary medical center owing to a recent onion intake; the owner requested to induce emesis. A 24 gauge peripheral intravenous catheter was inserted into the cephalic vein prior to the emetic injection. When the clinician removed the catheter, a device breakage was observed. A tourniquet was applied immediately proximal to the elbow. Ultrasonography was performed with a high-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer, also called a hockey-stick probe, to localize the fragment. An additional ultrasound was performed before surgery to confirm the location of the catheter piece, which migrated 5 cm proximally. Afterward, a surgical intervention allowed us to retrieve the fragment. This report highlights the effectiveness of a hockey-stick probe to determine the location of a catheter fragment in small breed dogs.
Case Report ㅣ 2022-08-31 1 323 81
Abstract : Caval syndrome is a severe complication of canine heartworm disease in which affected dogs present with various clinical signs that are often life-threatening. In cases of severe infection, adulticidal treatment has numerous complications as a result of a marked immune response against dead worms. Therefore, several surgical and non-surgical methods, including interventional extraction, have been applied in veterinary medicine. Despite the usefulness and efficiency of conventional retrieval devices, a few associated limitations must be addressed to reduce their risks and increase their applicability. Herein, we introduced a case of treating three dogs with caval syndrome by applying a newly developed heartworm basket device. The dogs were diagnosed with heartworm disease by heartworm antigen testing and direct smear. Imaging findings revealed remarkable remodeling of the right heart and pulmonary vessels and the presence of heartworms in the right heart. Additionally, heartworms were confirmed in the distal part of the abdominal aorta and femoral arteries in one dog, indicating aberrant systemic migration of the worms. Under general anesthesia, the heartworm basket device was introduced into the right heart via femoral venotomy and arteriotomy in one dog and jugular venotomy in the other two dogs. Although the number of cases in this study was small, the basket device was successful in gradual and cautious extraction of the heartworms in all three dogs. They exhibited good prognosis of clinical symptoms as indicated by imaging analyses.
Case Report ㅣ 2022-08-31 0 293 71
Abstract : An Amur softshell turtle with multiple shell injuries was admitted to the Seoul Wildlife Center on 19 May 2021. The most severe lesion was a puncture wound requiring urgent closure. In addition to routine supportive therapy, the damaged shell was patched with biocompatible polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) materials (bone cement and dental acrylic) and fiberglass. Despite a few methods to repair the carapace or plastron of hard-shelled turtles, shell repair in the Amur softshell turtle has rarely been reported. This paper reports the repair process of a puncture wound in the carapace of a softshell turtle using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). PMMA is a biocompatible acrylic polymer that forms a tight structure that holds the implant against tissue defects, such as skin, bones, and dentures. Fiberglass, a preferred fiber in various medical fields, was used with PMMA to provide extra strength and waterproof capability. After the procedure, there were no signs of edema, inflammation, bleeding, skin discoloration, or any other complications. Accordingly, this can be a method of choice in softshell turtles using biocompatible materials to cover the lesion in the carapace and provide appropriate wound management, supportive therapy, and a suitable course of antibiotics considering all other circumstances.
Case Report ㅣ 2022-08-31 0 425 114
Abstract : A two-year-old, intact male, 45 kg Doberman Pinscher was referred with dermal nodular lesions affecting the left hindlimb. The cytological examination revealed eosinophilic inflammation. Skin biopsy specimens showed canine eosinophilic granuloma (CEG). The dog was administered oral prednisolone (1.5 mg/kg/day) and azathioprine (2 mg/kg/day). After one week, the skin lesions diminished dramatically, but the dog presented with severe watery diarrhea. The prednisolone dose was reduced by 0.9 mg/kg/day. The lesions and diarrhea improved markedly after one week. Prednisolone was tapered by 25% of the previous dose every week to 0.2 mg/kg/day. Azathioprine was also reduced to therapy every other day. After seven weeks of combination treatment, the medications were withdrawn, but the dog had a recurrence one week later. Azathioprine (2 mg/kg/EOD) was reintroduced for two weeks. There was no relapse after all the medications had been withdrawn. This case indicates that CEG can be managed with prednisolone and azathioprine. Azathioprine may be an effective adjunctive immunosuppressive agent, and may be considered as a well-tolerated prednisolone sparing agent to treat CEG.
Erratum ㅣ 2022-08-31 0 183 34