Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Original Article ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 319 96
Abstract : Radiographic left atrial dimension (RLAD) is a useful measurement to assess left atrial enlargement in dogs. There are studies on the use of RLAD on various breeds of dogs, but no study on a specific breed with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). This study was conducted to compare RLAD measurements in Maltese dogs with MMVD ACVIM stage B1 and B2, and also to investigate the correlation of RLAD with the LA:Ao ratio. A total of 29 Maltese dogs were the subjects of this study. Each dog was diagnosed with MMVD ACVIM stage B1 or B2 based on physical examination, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography. The vertebral heart size (VHS), RLAD, LVIDDn, and LA:Ao ratio were measured and compared to evaluate the differences. There were significant differences in the RLAD, LVIDDn, and LA:Ao ratio between dogs with MMVD ACVIM stage B1 and those with stage B2. There was a significant correlation between the LA:Ao ratio and both the RLAD and VHS measurements, but the correlation coefficient was higher for RLAD. The RLAD scores exhibited a significant difference between dogs with ACVIM Stage B1 and with those with B2, and these scores had a higher correlation with the LA:Ao ratio measured by echocardiography than with VHS.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 301 69
Abstract : Three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has been widely used for accurate screw and pin placement in orthopedic surgery and neurosurgery. However, there are few reports comparing the accuracy between the patient-specific guides and freehand Kirschner wire (K-wire) placement in toy, small and medium breed dogs. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of 3D printed patient-specific guides (PSGs) in pin insertion in the thoracolumbar vertebrae of toy breed dogs and compare the outcomes between novice and experienced surgeons. The experiment was conducted on the thoracolumbar vertebrae of 21 euthanized toy breed dogs (median weight, 5.95 kg). The optimal insertion angle placement was determined and patient-specific guides for K-wire insertion were designed and 3D printed using computed tomography (CT) and a 3D computer- aided design program of three vertebrae (Thoracic 12-Lumbar 1). K-wire tracts were made by experienced and novice surgeons and compared to assess the accuracy based on postoperative CT. Based on postoperative CT, in the experienced group, 61 out of 63 pins (96.8%) were fully contained inside the vertebral body and lamina, whereas two pins (3.2%) had perforated the vertebral canal (grade 3, 2-4 mm breach). However, all the pins in the novice group were fully contained. The use of 3D printed PSGs for pin insertion in the thoracolumbar region is an accurate and safe alternative to freehand screw placement by novice surgeons in toy, small and medium breed dogs. Operations with 3D printed PSGs allow novice surgeons to achieve better or similar outcomes in accurate placement of pin/screws in vertebrae.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 239 61
Abstract : Recently, in human medicine and veterinary medicine, interest in synthetic bone graft is increasing. Among them, bone morphogenic protein (BMP) is currently being actively researched and applied to clinical trials. However, BMP has the disadvantage of being expensive and easily absorbed into surrounding tissues. Therefore, BMP requires the use of small amounts and rhBMP (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein)-2 carriers that can be released slowly. Hydrogel has the property of swelling a large amount of water inside when it is aqueous solution, and when it is, it consists of more than 90 percent water. Using these properties, hydrogels are often used as rhBMP-2 carrier. The scaffold used in this study is a hydrogel made from which keratin is extracted using human hair and based on it. In this study, we wanted to see the effect of bone formation in the calvarial defect model by using keratin-based hydrogel made with human hair as a scaffold. The experiment was conducted by dividing 3 groups a total of 12 mice. Calvarial bone defect is set to all 4 mm diameters. Bone formation was evaluated by using gross evaluation, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), immunohistochemistry. Groups using keratin-based hydrogel were significantly observed compared to Group 1s, and the most bone formations were found when rhBMP-2 and hydrogel were used. This represents the superiority of the functions of the rhBMP-2 carrier by a new material, keratin-based hydrogel. Through gross evaluation, micro-CT, and immunohistochemistry, we can confirm that keratin-based hydrogel is a useful rhBMP-2 carrier.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 287 67
Abstract : Appropriate suture technique is crucial for successful tracheal anastomosis. However, standards for an ideal suture method have not yet been established. A previous study suggested tracheal anastomosis using barbed sutures that do not require knots; however, their use in small animals has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to compare knotless barbed sutures with conventional smooth sutures in terms of maximum tensile strength and suturing time in canine tracheal models to demonstrate the feasibility of using barbed sutures in tracheal anastomosis in dogs. Tracheal segments harvested from nine beagle dog cadavers were randomly assigned to three suture groups: barbed suture (B), smooth suture in simple interrupted pattern (SI), and smooth suture in simple continuous pattern (SC). The maximum tensile force and suturing time were compared according to the suturing method, and the mode of failure was evaluated. The average suturing time was 3.29 min in the B group; 4.41 min, SC group; and 8.99 min, SI group (p < 0.001). The average maximum tensile force in the SC group was 134.97 N, which was stronger than the SI (110.57 N) and B groups (103.10 N) (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The difference between the B and SI groups was not significant (p = 0.05). The B group demonstrated comparable mechanical strength and shorter suture time compared with the SI group. Therefore, tracheal anastomosis using barbed sutures could be an effective alternative to conventional smooth sutures in dogs.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 358 64
Abstract : Two-port laparoscopic ovariectomy (Lap-OVE) has been performed in small dogs, using 3-mm and 5-mm portal sites, and is associated with reduced surgical stress and postoperative pain. However, extension of the incision is often needed to extract the ovaries. In this study, we aimed to minimize invasiveness by using smaller-sized cannulas as well as a novel technique for ovary extraction. Lap-OVE was performed on six, healthy female dogs (range, 3 to 7.2 kg) using two 3-mm midline portals. The middle finger of a size M nitrile glove was cut at its base and sterilized preoperatively. The ovary was suspended at the body wall using a 1-0 blue nylon needle, and the ovarian pedicle and ligaments were transected using a 3-mm bipolar forceps. To facilitate the glove passing through the 3.9-mm port, it was turned inside out to expose the smooth inner surface, before being inserted into the abdominal cavity with an applicator. Both ovaries were placed inside, and the mouth of the glove was exteriorized through the port with a laparoscopic grasping forceps. The ovaries were morcellated inside the glove, using Adison-Brown tissue forceps and iris scissors, which enabled safe extraction without incision enlargement. Median incision lengths were 4.3 mm (3.5-mm cranial cannula) and 4.8 mm (3.9-mm caudal cannula). An advantage of this procedure was that there was no need for skin sutures. In conclusion, using our novel technique, sutureless Lap-OVE was possible in small dogs using two 3-mm portal sites without additional incision.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 269 54
Abstract : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic positioning techniques used in local animal hospitals, identify the most common positioning problem, and determine whether there were changes after teleradiology consultations. From September 2016 to April 2021, 15 local animal hospitals that requested radiographic interpretation more than 10 times and for more than six cases of thoracic radiographs were selected. Six sets of two-views of (lateral and ventrodorsal [VD] or dorsoventral [DV] views) digital thoracic radiographs from six dogs per hospital were evaluated in four categories. For the lateral view, radiographic technique scores used in ten local animal hospitals improved, one remained the same, and four became worse. For the VD/DV view, the score for eleven hospitals improved and worsened for four. The most common problem was rotation (57/90) for the lateral view, followed by an inappropriate field of view (59/90), and incorrect beam center (71/90). For the VD/DV view, an inappropriate field of view (54/90) was the most common problem, followed by asymmetry (63/90), and incorrect beam center (73/90). Every factor, except rotation in the lateral view, improved after obtaining technical consultation; however, the degrees of improvement were not remarkable. There was no significant correlation between the number of requests and the degree of improvement. According to the results, the radiographic technique used in local animal hospitals was improved by technical advice on teleradiology. These changes make it possible to provide accurate diagnoses of the requested images. There are some limitations regarding the indicators of evaluation and the number of cases; therefore, further studies that use detailed indicators in large cohort group are needed. In addition, an effective method of teaching should be developed to improve radiographic techniques in local animal hospitals.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 247 61
Abstract : A decrease in the paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and functional cross-sectional area (FCSA) are associated with low back pain and disc herniation in humans. This study examined whether chronicity or lateralization of disc herniation affects the CSA and FCSA of the paraspinal muscles. The CSA and FCSA of the paraspinal muscles between the 12th and 13th thoracic vertebrae were measured in 31 dogs with intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). The muscle CSA and FCSA were evaluated by dividing the values of the body weight, spinal disc CSA, and spinal canal CSA to offset the differences in body type between subjects. In the chronic IVDH group, the ratio of the paraspinal muscle CSA divided by the body weight was significantly lower, and fat infiltration in the paraspinal muscle was significantly higher than in the acute group. The lateralization of the disc herniation was significantly related to the changes in the paraspinal muscle CSA. In the right-sided disc herniation group, right epaxial muscle CSA was significantly reduced compared to the left-sided disc herniation group. The change in the paraspinal muscle might be a helpful indicator to localize less obvious disc pathologies and target the search for the pathology responsible for disc-related symptoms in dogs.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 247 45
Abstract : This study was conducted to identify the useful blood variables in diagnosing calf diarrhea in Hanwoo calves and good indicators for calf diarrhea. In 530 Hanwoo calves, fecal scores were recorded on a scale of 0 to 3, and blood samples were collected and analyzed for hematology, serum biochemistry, and acute phase proteins. Among the blood variables, 16 blood variables showed significant differences (p < 0.01) according to fecal scores. After reference intervals of these 16 blood variables were calculated, the distributions of calves by calculated reference intervals showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) and linear associations (p < 0.001) in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (GLU), blood sodium concentration (Na), blood potassium concentration (K), fibrinogen (Fib), and haptoglobin (Hp). Of 6 blood variables, the optimal cut-off values were calculated for BUN, K, Fib, and Hp, and the area under the curve was 0.5 or more: BUN (9.5 mg/dL, AUC: 0.623), K (5.8 mmol/L, AUC: 0.599), Fib (650.0 mg/dL, AUC: 0.706), and Hp (12.5 mg/dL, AUC: 0.847). These findings could be useful in evaluating calves with diarrhea and making decision of further treatment of calf diarrhea in Hanwoo calves.
Original Article ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 196 62
Abstract : Several suture patterns can be used for cystotomy closure, and a continuous suture pattern is the most commonly used. In this study, the fluid-tight ability and other suitabilities of continuous appositional sutures, such as the simple continuous suture pattern (SC), running suture pattern (RN), and Ford interlocking suture pattern (FI), were compared for cystotomy closure. Cystotomy closure was performed using each suture method in 10 cases of ex vivo swine bladders in each group. Suture time, leakage site, suture length, bursting pressure (BP), bursting volume (BV), and circular bursting wall tension (CBWT) were measured. Suture time and suture length were the shortest in RN and the longest in FI. Leakage occurred in two places: the incision line directly and the hole made by the suture. Leakage occurred through the incision line in 4 bladders of the RN group and 2 bladders of the FI group, but not in the SC group, and in the rest of the bladders, leakage occurred through the suture hole. The values of BP, BV, and CBWT increased in the order of FI, SC, and RN. Suture time and suture length can be considered as factors related to healing and side effects. In this study, leakage through the incision was found in a less appositional area; therefore, leakage through the hole could be considered an indicator of better apposition. Good apposition is one of the conditions required for ideal cystotomy closure. The bursting strength representing the fluid-tight ability can be expressed as the CBWT. RN is expected to be efficient and cause a small degree of foreign body reaction; however, it is expected to be less stable. FI has the greatest fluid-tightness ability, but it has been proposed that side effects due to foreign body reactions most frequently occur in FI. In conclusion, SC, which is expected to have a sufficient degree of fluid-tightness and appropriate recovery, is preferable to other continuous appositional suturing methods for cystotomy closure.
Case Report ㅣ 2022-12-31 0 421 63
Abstract : A 15-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier was presented to our hospital with a history of anorexia, depression and abdominal pain. Diagnostic procedures including blood test, radiography and ultrasonography were performed. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed multiple hypoechoic cysts in the left lobe of the liver. Over time, the cysts increased in size and became more echogenic. Four days later, the rupture of the largest cyst was suspected, and hepatic abscesses with bacteria were confirmed by aspiration of the cyst. Despite surgical resection of the abscessed liver lobe, antibiotic administration, and supportive therapy, the dog died 9 days after presentation to the hospital and 4 days after the surgical procedure. The present case report described the overall diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for liver abscesses in a dog.