Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Original Article ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 196 52
Abstract : Fractures in the horse industry are challenging and a common cause of death in racehorses. To accelerate fracture healing, tissue engineering (TE) provides promising ways to regenerate bone tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic effects of biphasic calcium phosphate collagen (BCPC) graft, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatments in horses. Four thoroughbred horses were included in the study, and, in each horse, three cortical defects with a diameter of 5 mm and depth of 10 mm were formed in the third metacarpal bones (MC) and metatarsal bones (MT). The defects were randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups (saline, BCPC, BMP2, MSC, PRP, and control). Injections of saline, BMP2, PRP, or MSCs were made at 1, 3, and 5 weeks after defect surgery. Bone regeneration effects were assessed by radiography, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), micro-computed tomography (μCT), histopathological, and histomorphometric evaluation. The new bone ratio (%) in the histomorphometric evaluation was higher in the BMP2 group than in the control and saline groups. Radiographic and QCT values were significantly higher in the BCPC groups than in the other groups. QCT values of the BMP2 group were significantly higher than in the control and saline groups. The present study demonstrated that BCPC grafts were biologically safe and showed osteoconductivity in horses and the repeated injections of BMP2 without a carrier can be simple and promising TE factors for treating horses with bone fractures.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 287 40
Abstract : The tendon is a dense connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and plays an essential role in joint motion. The injured tendon heals slowly owing to its low cellularity and vascularity. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of regenerative injection therapy (RIT), 20 % dextrose prolotherapy (DP), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections that can promote tendon healing. Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits were divided into the control, DP, and PRP treatment groups. The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the right hindlimb of each rabbit was used. A round defect of 2 mm was induced. Approximately 0.2 mL of 20% dextrose and autologous PRP were injected into the proximal and distal ends of the SDFT mass. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examination and cross-sectional area (CSA) calculations were performed pre-operatively and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The SDFT of both limbs was transected for biomechanical and histomorphometric evaluations. The SDFT of the left limb was transected for intact control. Semi-quantitative analysis was performed to evaluate the histomorphometric properties. Additional analysis was performed using H&E, Masson’s trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining. The biomechanical evaluation showed that the treatment groups had higher tensile strength compared to the defect control group, while the PRP group had higher tensile strength than the DP group. On histological examination, the treatment groups appeared to be relatively closer to the remodeling phase of the healing process than the defect control group; the characteristics of the PRP group were closer to the remodeling phase than those of the DP group. The ultrasonographic examination showed different tendencies. Increased values in the CSA were observed during the early period in the treatment groups. This study suggests that PRP and DP can promote the healing of tendon injury, and these effects were superior with PRP than that with DP.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 210 36
Abstract : The change in the position of the abdominal organs due to movement by respiration is one of the reasons behind inaccurate irradiation of organs during radiotherapy (RT). Although studies in human medicine have revealed on the respiratory movements of abdominal organs, there is little information and no reference data for dogs. The purpose of this study was to establish the reference values of abdominal organs movement in various postures using computed tomography (CT), and to compare the movements of organs between dorsal recumbency and ventral, right and left lateral recumbency during respiration. CT images for kidney, adrenal gland, medial iliac lymph node, urinary bladder, gallbladder, liver, stomach, and thoracic and lumbar vertebral body of five beagle dogs were acquired. The movements of organs were evaluated by comparing the end-expiratory and end-inspiratory images. Movements of the organs were evaluated by dividing it into right-to-left, dorsal-to-ventral, and cranial-to-caudal directions. The movements of abdominal organs according to the change in postures and respiration were establish. The movement of the bilateral organs was the least when the organs were in the downward position (p < 0.017). The movement of cranial-to-caudal direction was greater than the movement of the other directions in most of the organs. Data obtained in this study may be useful in selecting the appropriate posture that can reduce the movements of organs to be treated with RT, and the data could be useful for setting the planning target volume to consider the movements of the abdominal organs by respiration.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 184 38
Abstract : Skin and joint diseases are relatively common in dogs. Nutritional complementation is one of the various management strategies for these disorders. This study evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of Kyungokgo-gamibang in dogs with skin and joint diseases. Thirty dogs with diseases were included and divided into three groups: control group (n = 15), skin group (n = 10), and joint group (n = 5). The skin and joint groups were fed skin and joint gums composed of Kyungokgo-gamibang extract with standard treatment for four weeks. The control group included dogs with skin diseases who were administered standard skin infection treatment for 4 weeks. The physical and laboratory results showed no remarkable adverse effects of Kyungokgo-gamibang extract after its administration in dogs. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using quality of life scale, and levels of cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α, for 4 weeks in all groups. Dermatologic clinical scales were performed for 4 weeks in the control and skin groups. Both the control and skin groups had significantly decreased dermatologic clinical scales, including pruritus and erythema scales (p < 0.05). Among the cytokine levels, only IL-2 concentration was significantly decreased in the skin group after 4 weeks of administration of the Kyungokgo-gamibang extract (p = 0.032). There was no significant difference between the levels of cytokines on days 0 and 28 in the joint group. The quality of life scale was significantly increased after week 4 compared to week 0 in the skin (p = 0.008) and joint groups (p = 0.041). This study suggests that Kyungokgo-gamibang extract can be applied in managing dogs affected by skin and joint diseases without adverse effects.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 188 32
Abstract : Although various imaging evaluation methods have been developed and utilized, thoracic radiography remains essential and is the top priority for diagnosing and managing cardiac diseases. Thoracic radiographic measurements associated with the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and caudal vena cava (CVC) can objectively diagnose cardiac disease in many animals. In particular, VHS measurement is primarily used to evaluate the dimensions of the heart size on thoracic radiographs and can measure cardiomegaly more objectively. Additionally, the value of the CVC compared with the aorta (Ao) and the length of vertebrae (VL) can be used as valuable parameters in right congestive heart failure. To describe the CVC/Ao and CVC/VL ratios in 10 long-tailed gorals (Naemorhedus caudatus) without subjective radiographic evidence of cardiac diseases. The VHS, CVC, Ao, and VL of gorals were measured in the right lateral (RL) view of the thoracic radiographs. In the RL view of 10 gorals, the VHS was 9.31 ± 0.55 vertebrae (v), the CVC/Ao ratio was 0.84 ± 0.13, and the CVC/VL ratio was 0.67 ± 0.09. Additionally, the thoracic morphology of gorals was determined to be intermediate (thoracic depth-to-width ratio, 1.04 ± 0.09, 0.75-1.25). This study confirmed that VHS was significantly correlated with CVC and Ao, and measuring and comparing each value would help diagnose cardiac diseases in gorals. The radiographic measurements in this study will allow veterinarians to diagnose several cardiac diseases in gorals.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 142 76
Abstract : A 5-year-old neutered male domestic short-haired cat presented with acute dyspnea characterized by open-mouth breathing and stridor for 2 days. Direct visualization via laryngoscopy revealed diffuse laryngeal swelling and severe thickening of the vocal folds bilaterally; thus, the upper respiratory tract was obstructed owing to severe edema. Neutrophil infiltration was found on fine needle aspiration of the larynx cytology, and no discrete mass with polyp or neoplasia was identified on diagnostic imaging. The cat was diagnosed with acute obstructive laryngitis, and a tracheostomy tube was immediately installed. After 17 days of treatment with steroids, doxycycline and azithromycin, the swollen larynx gradually improved, and there was no recurrence of laryngitis or respiratory obstruction. A feline upper respiratory polymerase chain reaction panel revealed Mycoplasma felis infection; however, it could not be determined whether it was pathogenic or opportunistic. Herein, we report a case of obstructive laryngitis in a cat. When respiratory obstruction due to acute laryngitis is identified, a good prognosis is expected with rapid and appropriate treatment.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 194 55
Abstract : A 12-year-old Standard Poodle presented with intermittent weakness and occasional dyspnea at the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital of Kangwon National University. A grade of 4 out of 6 systolic murmur with an irregular tachycardic rhythm was auscultated on both sides of the chest. Systolic blood pressure was 140 mmHg. Panting was noticed in the hospital, but there was no crackle sound. Blood analysis revealed mild increases in liver panel levels (alanine aminotransferase 149 [reference interval, 19-70] U/L; and alkaline phosphatase, 185 [reference interval, 15-127] U/L) and severe increases in cardiac biomarker levels (n-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, 4169 [reference interval, 50-900] pmol/L; and cardiac troponin I, 0.22 [reference interval, 0.03-0.12] ng/mL). On electrocardiography, irregularly irregular supraventricular tachycardic rhythm with an f-wave and no distinct p-wave was observed. Generalized cardiomegaly with an enlarged right atrium and left ventricle was confirmed on thoracic radiography. Moreover, hepatomegaly and an enlarged caudal vena cava were observed. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed a fibromuscular diaphragm in the right ventricle. Because of the obstructive lesion in the right ventricle, the right atrium and ventricle were enlarged (right atrial area index, 38.82 cm2/m2 [reference interval, 4.2-10.2 cm2/m2]; right ventricle end-diastolic area index, 14.152 cm2/m2 [reference interval, 4.9-10.92 cm2/m2]). Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed with double- chambered right ventricle (DCRV). Pimobendan, furosemide, enalapril, diltiazem, and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) were prescribed, and all symptoms were relieved. DCRV is a right-sided congenital heart defect resembling pulmonic valve stenosis. If symptoms are not severe, medical therapy can be facilitated without surgery or the balloon dilation.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 139 25
Abstract : A one-month-old Thoroughbred colt presented with left hindlimb lameness grade 5/5, according to the American Association of Equine Practitioners’ lameness scale. The colt started showing signs of lameness two weeks earlier without being involved in an accident. A local veterinarian examined the foal; radiography revealed no significant findings under the hip joint. No improvement was noted after 15 days of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) medication. On presentation at our hospital, ultrasonography was performed, which revealed no significant findings in the iliac wings. The foal underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan under general anesthesia. CT revealed bone cysts in the following that could have caused the lameness: the left transverse process of the 5th, 6th lumbar, and the 1st sacrum vertebrae; osteophytes in the auricular surface of the ilium, suggestive of sacroiliac arthritis. The foal recovered smoothly from anesthesia with assistance. The foal was treated with NSAIDs and rested for more than six months. The owner reported that the foal showed no lameness one year later. CT revealed bony changes in the lumbosacral region that were not detected by radiography and ultrasonography, suggesting that CT could be useful for detecting abnormalities in the pelvic region of horses.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 281 41
Abstract : Three dogs were referred with epistaxis and facial deformity. Computed tomography (CT) scan identified masses in the bilateral nasal cavity with soft tissue attenuation and contrast enhancement. These masses had caused adjacent bones lysis, especially lysis of cribriform plate that extended to the intracranial region. Base on histopathology and CT imaging results, tumors were diagnosed as nasal carcinomas at stage 4. Three dogs were treated with stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT). These dogs received 30-35 Gy from 3-5 daily treatments (7-10 Gy per treatment). The sizes of tumors decreased the most on follow-up CT images at one month after treatment. Recurrence was confirmed between 3 and 5 months after completing SRT. The survival time of dogs treated with SRT were 110, 190, and 210 days, respectively. This study confirmed that SRT could treat canine nasal carcinomas with cribriform plate lysis without causing serious radiation toxicities. Follow-up CT examination is considered at 1 month and 3 to 6 months after SRT to accurately evaluate the prognosis and the timing of recurrence.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-04-30 0 286 30
Abstract : A 6-year-old female Chihuahua was presented to the Animal Medical Center for surgical resection of a perineal mass that had recently increased in size. Ultrasonography revealed a large, homogeneous fatty mass with irregular margins between the surrounding muscle layers due to infiltrating fatty tissues. Cytological findings from fine-needle aspirates revealed numerous sheets and clusters of adipocytes, which was consistent with the fatty mass. Based on ultrasonographic and cytological findings, an infiltrative lipoma was suspected. During the surgery, the perineal mass was found to be non-encapsulated, irregularly marginated, and extensively distributed into the surrounding muscles. The mass extended inside the pelvic cavity and left anal sac. The perineal mass was surgically removed and submitted for histopathologic examination. Histopathology confirmed that the mass was an infiltrative lipoma invading into the anal sac and surrounding muscles. The present report was an unusual presentation of infiltrative lipoma that invaded the anal sac in the perineum.