Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Review Article ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 276 56
Abstract : Machine learning and deep learning (ML/DL) algorithms have been successfully applied in medical practice. However, their application in veterinary medicine is relatively limited, possibly due to a lack in the quantity and quality of relevant research. Because the potential demands for ML/DL applications in veterinary clinics are significant, it is important to note the current gaps in the literature and explore the possible directions for advancement in this field. Thus, a scoping review was conducted as a situation analysis. We developed a search strategy following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed and Embase databases were used in the initial search. The identified items were screened based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information regarding model development, quality of validation, and model performance was extracted from the included studies. The current review found 55 studies that passed the criteria. In terms of target animals, the number of studies on industrial animals was similar to that on companion animals. Quantitative scarcity of prediction studies (n = 11, including duplications) was revealed in both industrial and non-industrial animal studies compared to diagnostic studies (n = 45, including duplications). Qualitative limitations were also identified, especially regarding validation methodologies. Considering these gaps in the literature, future studies examining the prediction and validation processes, which employ a prospective and multi-center approach, are highly recommended. Veterinary practitioners should acknowledge the current limitations in this field and adopt a receptive and critical attitude towards these new technologies to avoid their abuse.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 233 25
Abstract : Specialized hearing tests for pets are currently in demand. A brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test is an objective, non-invasive, and practical electrophysiological method that records electric signals from the peripheral auditory system to the brainstem when an auditory stimulation is provided. In veterinary medicine, sedation or anesthesia is essential for a successful examination. In human medicine, research has established the indications for various sedatives, anesthetics, and drugs according to the depth of anesthesia required. However, in veterinary medicine, there are very few comparative studies on propofol or isoflurane, which are the most common anesthetics used. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the difference in BAER test results between sedation with medetomidine, anesthesia using propofol, and inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane after propofol administration. The test was conducted on four healthy adult dogs. There was no statistically significant difference in latency, interpeak latency, or amplitude between the various drugs. The results suggest that a sedative or anesthetic for the administration of a BAER test can be selected according to the patient’s needs.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 275 73
Abstract : In this paper, we designed 3D-printed orthopedic splint models for patient-specific external coaptation on fracture healing and analyzed the stability of the models through finite element method (FEM) analysis under compressive load conditions. Polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) based 3D splint models of the thicknesses 1, 3, 5 and 7 mm were designed, and Peak von Mises stress (PVMS) and maximum displacement (MD) of the models were analyzed by FEM under compressive loads of 50, 100, 150, and 200 N. The FEM results indicated that PVMS and MD values, regardless of material, had a negative correlation with the thickness of the models and a positive correlation with the compressive load. There was a risk of splint deformation under conditions more extreme than 100 N with 5 mm thickness. For successful clinical application of 3D-printed orthopedic splints in veterinary medicine, it is recommended that the splint should be produced not less than 5 mm thickness. Also, it is expected to be stable when the splint is applied to situations with a compressive load of 100 N or less. There is an advantage of overcoming the limitations of the existing bandage method through 3D-printing technology as well as verifying the stability through 3D modeling before application. Such 3D printing technology will be widely used in veterinary medicine and various fields as well as orthopedics.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 471 59
Abstract : Immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) is an inflammatory, noninfectious disease that affects two or more joints in dogs. Immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone are considered the initial treatment choice for dogs with IMPA. However, few reports have described the combination of mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone for treating dogs with IMPA. In this report, we described the cases of three dogs treated with a combination of mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. The clinical signs were alleviated in all cases, and C-reactive protein levels were reduced after treatment. Our results show that combination therapy of mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone is effective in managing IMPA. However, careful monitoring of the potential adverse effects, including sporadic infections and metabolic diseases, is necessary. In addition, screening tests and appropriate treatments are necessary for proteinuria, a common complication in dogs with IMPA.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 142 31
Abstract : A 10-year-old spayed female beagle dog presented with a 2-month history of third-eyelid elevation in the left eye (OS). Ophthalmic examination revealed slightly diminished corneal and palpebral reflexes along with exophthalmos in the OS. Schirmer’s tear test and intraocular pressure values were within the normal range for the OS. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed protrusion of the third eyelid and corneal opacity in the OS. Fundoscopy revealed a prominent black mass in the OS covering the optic nerve. Tapetal hyper-reflectivity was also observed around the mass. Ocular ultrasonography showed a 0.74 × 0.67 cm echogenic posterior segment mass around the optic nerve protruding into the retrobulbar space. Computed tomography revealed a contrast-enhanced soft tissue lesion in the posteromedial aspect of the left eyeball protruding into the retrobulbar region, and the optic nerve was suspected to be involved. No evidence of osteolytic changes in the adjacent bone or distant metastasis was observed. Enucleation was performed to prevent potential metastasis or local invasion of the mass and to relieve discomfort due to exposure to keratopathy resulting from lagophthalmos. Histopathological examination revealed a central choroidal melanocytoma extending into the optic nerve. No local recurrence was detected until 16 months postoperatively.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 595 59
Abstract : A 11-year-old neutered male Maltese dog was vaccinated with a rabies vaccine (Rabisin®, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Germany) subcutaneously at a local animal hospital. One hour after vaccination, purpura with edema was observed at the injection site and severe thrombocytopenia (0 K/μL) was noted on a complete blood count (CBC). No specific findings were found in serum chemistry, electrolyte, blood gas analysis, and coagulation tests. The patient was hospitalized and administered antihemorrhagic agents (vitamin K, desmopressin), antihistamines (chlorpheniramine) and corticosteroids (methylprednisolone sodium succinate). On a repeat CBC, mild anemia had developed, thrombocytopenia was still noted, and autoagglutination was observed on a saline agglutination test (SAT). A polymerase chain reaction panel for infectious agents (e.g., Babesia spp.) was negative. The diagnosis was secondary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) associated with vaccination. Therefore, the immunosuppressants (prednisolone, and mycophenolate mofetil) were administered. Six days after drug administration, new lesion was not observed, and the previous lesions were significantly improved. It gradually improved and 4 weeks after hematocrit and platelet recovered to normal levels. It was maintained for 6 months without recurrence of related symptoms. Based on patient’s history and test results, the patient was diagnosed with Evans’ syndrome associated with rabies vaccine.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 175 61
Abstract : A 6-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog presented with noisy respiration and progressive dyspnea. A physical examination and computed tomography revealed an approximately 3-cm ill-marginated laryngeal mass. As there was no metastasis, the mass was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the dog recovered well, and the mass was diagnosed as rhabdomyosarcoma via immunohistochemical staining. At 20 months postoperatively, the dog was healthy without any clinical signs, and radiographs obtained during follow-up did not reveal any abnormalities.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 281 85
Abstract : A 7-year-old neutered male, domestic shorthair cat presented anorexia and lethargy. The complete blood cell count revealed severe non-regenerative anemia, lymphocytic leukocytosis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. On the peripheral blood smear examination, medium to large lymphoblastic cells with moderate amounts of basophilic cytoplasm were observed in up to 70% of peripheral leukocytes. Feline leukemia and immunodeficiency viruses were not detected using a commercial diagnostic kit. While splenomegaly and blunt margins of the caudoventral liver were observed in abdominal radiography, changes in the intra-abdominal lymph nodes were not remarkable. Ultimately, flow cytometric immunophenotyping from the peripheral blood revealed a negative for B-cell markers (CD21–/CD79a–) and T-cell markers (CD3–/CD4–/CD5–/CD8–). Based on the hematological examination and the immunophenotyping assay, the cat was diagnosed with non-B, non-T acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here, we report a rare case of non-B, non-T acute lymphoblastic leukemia to raise awareness and provide information on clinical symptoms and laboratory test and immunophenotyping analysis results.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 163 51
Abstract : A 4-year-old female Munchkin cat presented with a 2-day history of a large mass in the left eye. On the first presentation, slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed a large corneal bulla occupying around 40% of the corneal surface along the visual axis. Based on the results, a diagnosis of feline acute bullous keratopathy was made. Due to the location of the extensive corneal bulla, autologous lamellar keratoplasty was performed based on prior studies, to both minimize postoperative complications that may affect axial vision and address any cosmetic concerns the owner had. The autologous lamellar keratoplasty successfully resolved the corneal bulla with no signs of corneal opacities postoperatively. Therefore, autologous lamellar keratoplasty may be a useful surgical treatment for feline acute bullous keratopathy from both the tectonic and optical points of view.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-08-31 0 208 29
Abstract : A 1-year-old castrated male Korean Shorthair cat presented with dyspnea, anorexia, lethargy, and seizures. Physical examination revealed salivation, right forelimb hemiparesis, and rapid breathing. No abnormalities were detected on auscultation. Laboratory findings revealed increased levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, glucose, and a decreased albumin-to-globulin (A:G) ratio. Both N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and feline serum amyloid A (fSAA) levels were significantly elevated. Thoracic radiography revealed mild cardiomegaly and diffuse increased interstitial infiltration with soft tissue opacity in the periphery of the right caudal pleural space. Echocardiography and lung ultrasonography were performed to investigate the cause of mild cardiomegaly and soft tissue opacity in the pleural space. Echocardiography revealed a mild amount of echogenic pericardial effusion, and lung ultrasonography showed an echogenic soft tissue mass with no blood signal in the right caudal pleural space, suggestive of a granulomatous lesion. After obtaining 5 mL of pericardial fluid through pericardiocentesis, cytology of the pericardial effusion sample revealed marked neutrophils and macrophages with no bacteria. IDEXX feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of the FIP virus biotype in the sample. This case presents a rarely reported atypical mixed form of FIP in a cat diagnosed ante-mortem using pericardial effusion analysis. In this case, ultrasound examination played a crucial role in the definitive diagnosis of FIP by PCR biotyping through pericardiocentesis. Ultrasonography can be highly beneficial in guiding the diagnosis and evaluation of cats with suspected FIP.