Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
Original Article ㅣ 2023-02-28 0 287 85
Abstract : The growing market for companion animals, combined with their increasing lifespan, has generated an increased interest in companion animal immunity enhancers. Ginsenoside, a saponin component of ginseng and an essential ingredient of red ginseng marc (produced during red ginseng production), is effective in improving immunity. In this experiment, a powder mixture of red ginseng marc and steamed red ginseng extract powder (RGME) was orally administered to dogs for eight weeks. Subsequently, blood samples were collected and tested every four weeks. In addition, canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (cPBMCs) were stimulated with or without interleukin-2 (IL-2) to evaluate their proliferation and cytokine secretion abilities. Proliferation assay suggests that the administration of RGME effectively enhanced numbers of cPBMCs under IL-2 stimulation. Furthermore, in the RGME group, a significant increase in the concentration of interferon gamma released from cPBMCs under IL-2 stimulation was observed. In conclusion, RGME might be an effective health supplement for improving immunity in dogs.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-02-28 0 379 65
Abstract : Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease in animals and several therapeutic trials with various drugs have been conducted for more effective management of AD. However, these trials have not been able to properly address all the aspects of AD management because of the lack of good efficacy or due to significant side effects of the drugs being tested. Synbio-glucan functional spray is a functional skin spray using Synbio-glucan composed of β-glucan and probiotics. We designed a functional spray composed of Synbio-glucan (patent application number:10-1805863), distilled water, glycerin, solubilizer, and 40% alcohol. We tested the efficacy and safety of the functional spray on six dogs with AD. The trial was conducted with the consent of the caregivers. The spray was applied to the skin lesions, including the trunk, axillae, inguinal region, or periocular areas, thrice a day for 30 days. To evaluate the efficacy of this functional spray, we assessed the pruritus visual analog scale (PVAS) and the canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI)-4. At the end of one month, the results clinical scores after functional spray treatment showed a significant decrease in the PVAS (p = 0.03) and CADESI-4 (p = 0.03) in all the subject dogs with AD. This study thus confirmed that the Synbio-glucan functional spray is efficacious and safe for the treatment of AD in dogs.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-02-28 0 219 64
Abstract : This study aimed to compare complete ruptured tendon healing between two different repair methods using the Achilles tendon of New Zealand white rabbits. Thoracolumbar fascia (TF) padded Kessler suture, polypropylene mesh (PM) padded Kessler suture, and Kessler suture only were performed on the completely transected lateral gastrocnemius tendon, and biomechanical and histologic characteristics were assessed after 8 weeks. For biomechanical assessment, the tensile strength of each repaired tendon was measured according to the established methods. For histomorphometric analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining for general histology, and Masson’s trichrome (MT) staining for collagen fibers, Alcian blue (AB) staining for proteoglycans were performed and analyzed. Significant increases in tensile strength with remarkable decreases in the abnormalities against nuclear roundness, cell density, fiber structure, and fiber alignment and significant decreases in the mean number of infiltrated inflammatory cells and AB-positive proteoglycan-occupied regions with increases in MT-positive collagen fiber-occupied regions were demonstrated in the Kessler suture with PM or TF padding groups as compared to those of the Kessler suture group. Both of PM and TF provided potent tensile strength and supported healing with the evidence of histological examinations. This means that augmentation with PM is useful for repairing a completely ruptured Achilles tendon, without additional surgery for autograft material harvesting.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-02-28 0 368 87
Abstract : The ventral midline approach (VMA) and right flank approach (RFA) are common procedures for the sterilization of bitches. This study compared the different parameters viz. total duration of surgery, recovery time, and length of the incision as well as body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and SpO2 in each approach. Twenty (20) bitches were divided randomly for the RFA and VMA. Meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously half an hour before the induction to provide preemptive analgesia. Diazepam and ketamine were administered intravenously at dose rates of 0.25 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, and 0.17 mg/kg and 3.33 mg/kg, respectively to produce and maintain anesthesia. Each parameter was recorded at the pre-operative, operative and post-operative times. The average duration of surgery and length of incision of RFA (16.1 ± 5.13 min and 2.44 ± 0.83 cm) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the VMA (21.3 ± 5.48 min and 3.53 ± 0.7 cm). The operated bitches showed hypothermia (p < 0.05) at 1 hour compared to baseline and 24 hours of surgery. Heart and respiration rates increased significantly (p < 0.05) during traction and severing of ovarian ligaments in bitches within the RFA group, but there was no significant difference within VMA approaches. The sedation score was significantly higher (p < 0.05) at 1 hour after surgery in both approaches. Based on the duration of surgery and length of incision RFA approach was quick and minimal skin wound. Further studies on bitches considering molecular investigations of surgical stress are imperative.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-02-28 1 488 78
Abstract : Vertebral left atrial size (VLAS) is an important indicator to predict myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD) in dogs. When the caudal margin of cardiac silhouette and the dorsal margin of caudal vena cava (CdVC) could not be seen exactly, another way to evaluate VLAS is needed. The objective of this study was to assess whether a new modified VLAS (m-VLAS) could be used as an indicator to predict MMVD in 57 small breed dogs with MMVD. The m-VLAS was also used to classify American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine staging groups and left heart enlargement confirmed with echocardiograph (EchoLHE) groups. The m-VLAS was measured as the distance from the ventral aspect of the carina to the dorsal aspect of the intersection of the cardiac silhouette and the farthest LA caudal margin, not the CdVC, followed by drawing the same line beginning at the cranial edge of T4. Based on VLAS values and m-VLAS values measured for dogs with MMVD, correlations between these values and left heart enlargement groups were then evaluated. There were significant differences in both the VLAS and the m-VLAS between EchoLHE groups. The AUC of the ROC curve of the m-VLAS to detect EchoLHE was higher than that of the VLAS. The optimal cutoff value for the m-VLAS was >2.7, which had a higher specificity (86.84%) than the VLAS specificity (71.05%). This study reveals that a new m-VLAS is a more specific indicator than the VLAS for predicting left side heart enlargement in small breed dogs. Therefore, the m-VLAS can be used as a clinically useful radiographic measurement alternative to or better than the VLAS.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-02-28 0 191 52
Abstract : This study compared the degree of disc degeneration of intervertebral disc between normal disc and disc disease using Magnetic Resonance images of tholacolumbar and lumbar vertebrae in dogs. The sample population consisted of 72 dogs and 188 intervertebral discs. These dogs were divided into four groups according to MRI criteria: normal, disc protrusion, disc extrusion, and fibrocartilaginous embolism. The Pfirrmann classification developed by Pfirrmann for use in human medicine was used to assess the degree of disc degeneration. Statistical analysis revealed that disc diseases had a significant difference in the degree of disc degeneration compared to normal discs in the intervertebral disc. Fibrocartilaginous embolism was found to have a relatively low disc degenerative change compared to two other disc disease groups, disc protrusion and disc extrusion. Disc degeneration in the disc extrusion group was slightly higher than that in the disc protrusion group, although the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant.
Original Article ㅣ 2023-02-28 0 197 52
Abstract : The purpose of this study was to evaluate body temperature changes in rabbits anesthetized using water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA). Ten rabbits were used for this study. For the experimental group (wIRA group; wG, n = 5), the experimental equipment was used and irradiated using wIRA. The control group (CG, n = 5) did not have any warming device. There were no significant differences in heart rate, respiration rate, and end tidal CO2 (EtCO2) between wG and CG. After 80 min, the core body temperature of wG rabbits was significantly higher than that of CG rabbits. The surface body temperature was significantly higher while receiving wIRA support at all time points after 5 min. In conclusion, in rabbits under inhalation anesthesia, the surface body temperature was better maintained than the core body temperature when using wIRA.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-02-28 0 473 67
Abstract : A 10-year-old spayed female Cocker spaniel weighing 6.64 kg was presented with a sign of syncope. Electrocardiographic findings revealed pathologic atrioventricular (AV) block alternating 3rd degree AV block, non-responsive to atropine. Before pacemaker implantation, several anti-hypertensive medications were administered, but there was no improvement. After pacemaker implantation, the heart rate and systemic arterial systolic blood pressure were immediately improved. This is the first report on the resolution of an AV block and malignant systemic hypertension after a pacemaker implant in veterinary medicine.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-02-28 0 257 72
Abstract : A 5-month-old female domestic short-haired cat presented with a history of seizure episodes for two months following an animal bite injury to the head. There were no remarkable findings on physical and neurological examination or blood analysis. Computed tomography revealed a fracture of the left parietal bone with an inward displacement of the bone fragment while magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged temporal horn of the left lateral ventricle and a pseudomeningocele compressing the adjacent cerebral parenchyma. Subsequently, cerebrospinal fluid analysis results were normal. The patient was diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI), with subsequent post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) and pseudomeningocele. Despite treatment with phenobarbital and levetiracetam, seizures were not sufficiently controlled. Craniectomy for bone fragment removal and duraplasty were performed after a week. The patient then returned to normal condition with no further seizure activity. On repeated MRI two months after discharge, the hydrocephalus of the lateral ventricle and pseudomeningocele were enlarged; however, the patient maintained a good clinical status without any neurological signs. To the best of our knowledge, PTH and intracranial pseudomeningoceles have not yet been reported in cats. PTH and pseudomeningocele are among the complications of TBI and may not have any significant relevance with the clinical signs in this case. Thus, to broaden our knowledge about PTH and pseudomeningocele in cats, we describe serial changes in the clinical findings of this cat over the treatment period.
Case Report ㅣ 2023-02-28 0 192 62
Abstract : Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia, characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils into systemic organs, has rarely been reported in dogs with intestinal lymphoma. A 12-year-old spayed female Maltese with eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and ascites was found to have muscular layer thickening in the small intestine. Histologically, there was transmural infiltration of small to intermediate sized neoplastic lymphocytes that were immunohistochemically CD3-/CD79a-. PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement demonstrated clonal T cell receptor gene population. A moderate number of eosinophils were present along with neoplastic lymphocytes in the small intestine, and eosinophil infiltration was also noted in the abdominal lymph nodes and spleen. The present case reports intestinal T-cell lymphoma with generalized paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia. Clinicians should be aware that hypereosinophilia can be found in the organs, body cavity fluid, and peripheral blood of dogs with intestinal lymphoma.