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J Vet Clin 2022; 39(4): 168-172

https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.168

Published online August 31, 2022

A Rare Case of Canine Huge Renal Cell Carcinoma with Ovarian Metastasis

Jiyoung Koo1 , Woo-Jin Song1,2 , Heesoo Jo1 , Hyerin Ahn1 , Solji Choi1 , Hyohoon Jeong1,2 , Jongtae Cheong1,2 , Hyun-Jung Park1,2 , Youngmin Yun1,2

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2The Research Institute of Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea

Correspondence to:*ssong@jejunu.ac.kr (Woo-Jin Song), dvmyun@jejunu.ac.kr (Youngmin Yun)

Received: May 30, 2022; Revised: June 26, 2022; Accepted: July 1, 2022

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

A 10-year-old female Pomeranian weighing 2.25 kg with a history of gradual weight loss and an intraabdominal mass confirmed with ultrasonography at a local hospital was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Jeju National University. Physical examination revealed abdominal distention. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycemia (57 mg/dL; reference range, 60-110 mg/dL). On abdominal ultrasonography, a heterogeneously hyperechoic mass measuring 7.51 × 10.6 cm was found at the level of the left kidney. Computed tomographic findings showed a unilateral left kidney mass with a 10-cm diameter and vessel contrast enhancement in the corticomedullary phase. Unilateral nephrectomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed because left ovary enlargement was observed during surgery. The renal mass was adjacent to the aorta and vena cava and attached to a portion of the small intestine, greater omentum, and left ovary. The mass was huge (12.5 × 10 × 7 cm) and was 16.5% of the body weight. Histopathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and ovarian metastasis. After surgery, clinical signs improved remarkably, and serum glucose level returned to normal. As RCC is resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, the owner decided not to proceed with postoperative adjunctive therapies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of ovarian metastasis with huge RCC in a dog.

Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, computed tomography, ovarian metastasis, nephrectomy, dog.

Primary renal neoplasia is relatively rare in humans and dogs (3,4). It accounts for 0.3%-1.7% of all canine primary neoplasias (9), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 60% of all primary renal neoplasias (2,3). The clinical symptoms are nonspecific and include hematuria, lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss (3). Nephrectomy is the most effective treatment for RCC. The average survival period of dogs that do not undergo nephrectomy is less than 1 month, and the average survival period of dogs that undergo nephrectomy is 16 months, regardless of tumor type (3,6). In addition, the survival time of dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy is not significantly longer than that of dogs treated with surgery alone (3).

A 10-year-old female Pomeranian weighing 2.25 kg with a history of gradual weight loss for 9 weeks and an intraabdominal mass confirmed through X-ray and ultrasonography at a local hospital was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Jeju National University. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension and increased abdominal pressure. Low albumin (2.0 g/dL; reference range, 2.5-4.4 g/dL), glucose (57 mg/dL; reference range, 60-110 mg/dL), and potassium (3.6 mmol/L; reference range, 3.7-5.8 mmol/L) levels were detected, and there were no other abnormalities on blood analysis. In radiographic views, a mass occupying half of the abdominal cavity was observed (Fig. 1A), and a heterogeneously hyperechoic mass measuring 7.51 × 10.6 cm was found at the level of the left kidney on abdominal ultrasound (Fig. 1B), whereas the right kidney was normal. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT; SOMATOM Emotion, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; pitch 0.8, scan slice thickness 2.0 mm, rotation time 0.6 s, mAs 39, kVP 130, field of view of 15 cm) with 1 mL/kg of intravenous contrast agent (Omnipaque 100 mL, GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA) in the supine position showed a unilateral left renal mass with a 10-cm diameter vessel contrast enhancement in the corticomedullary phase (Fig. 2A) and enlargement of the left ovary (Fig. 2B). Unilateral nephrectomy and ovariohysterectomy were also performed. The renal mass was adjacent to the aorta and vena cava and adhered to the small intestine, greater omentum, and left ovary. The renal mass was 12.5 × 10 × 7 cm in size (Fig. 3A), and the ovarian mass was 2 × 2 × 1 cm (Fig. 3B). After surgery, the patient weighed 1.88 kg, and the weight of the intraabdominal mass was 16.5% of the body weight.

Figure 1.Imaging of abdominal mass. (A) A mass occupying more than half of the abdominal cavity (yellow arrow) was identified on X-ray. (B) Heterogeneous hyperechoic mass at the level of left kidney was detected on abdominal ultrasound.

Figure 2.Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of abdominal mass. (A) Unilateral left renal mass with vessel contrast enhancement (yellow arrow) in the corticomedullary phase was identified. (B) In addition, enlargement of left ovary (yellow arrow) was detected.

Figure 3.Surgically removed mass. (A) Left kidney (12.5 × 10 × 7 cm) and (B) left ovary (2 × 2 × 1 cm; yellow arrow) were adherent to each other.

On histopathological examination, the renal mass was confirmed to be a renal tubular cell carcinoma. The neoplastic mass mainly consisted of cuboidal, columnar, or polygonal cells. In general, the eosinophilic cytoplasm and nucleus are pushed into the center or marginal regions of the cell. Large nucleoli in the cells were clearly observed, and the mitotic index was 37 at 10 fields of ×400 magnification. Necrosis was also observed in the mass (Fig. 4A). The left ovary was also diagnosed as carcinoma and showed a tubular pattern similar to that of the renal mass. It is highly likely that the RCC had metastasized to the ovary. The mitotic index was 1-5, and necrosis was observed inside the mass (Fig. 4B).

Figure 4.Histopathologic findings. (A) The left kidney mass mainly consisted of cuboidal, columnar, or polygonal cells with malignancy, which was consistent with renal cell carcinoma (H&E, ×400). (B) Malignant tubular pattern similar to the left kidney mass was detected in the left ovary (H&E, ×400).

As RCC is resistant to chemotherapy (3), we decided to follow-up the patient without chemotherapy. At day 7 after surgery, serum chemistry showed restored albumin (3.0 g/dL; reference range, 2.5-4.4 g/dL), glucose (94 mg/dL; reference range, 60-110 mg/dL), and potassium (4.2 mmol/L; reference range, 3.7-5.8 mmol/L) levels. At day 42 and 150 after surgery, the dog weighed 2.3 kg, and there was no evidence of recurrence or further metastasis of the tumor on X-ray and abdominal ultrasound. Unfortunately, the patient was lost to follow-up after the last visit (150 days after surgery).

In this case, the mass was sufficiently large to occupy half of the abdominal cavity and was 16.5% of the body weight. In previous studies, RCC did not attain sufficiently massive size to occupy half of the abdominal cavity (10,12,14), however, nephroblastoma could be massive (1,13). Lucke et al. have reported that variant sizes of RCC (20 × 16 × 9, 6 × 2 × 2, 7 × 5 × 7, 12 × 6, and 8 × 7 × 5 cm) were observed in medium- and large-breed dogs including Collie, Alsatian, Boxer, Afghan, and Labrador (12). Furthermore, in human, RCC with a diameter of >20 cm is extremely rare and can be diagnosed as a huge RCC (4). In the present case, it is noteworthy that the renal mass was remarkably larger (12.5 × 10 × 7 cm in a dog weighing 2.5 kg) than typical canine RCC.

Ovarian metastasis of RCC was observed in this case. While ovarian primary neoplasia usually shows a cystic or papillary proliferative pattern on histopathology, in this case, a tubular pattern similar to RCC was detected. In addition, the left kidney and left ovary were adherent to each other. Therefore, it was tempting to speculate that RCC had metastasized to the ovary in this case. According to previous studies on human RCC, ovarian metastasis was confirmed in only 0.5% of all cases (7,15). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of ovarian metastasis of RCC in dogs.

Tanaka et al. (17) recently revealed that contrast-enhanced CT could be helpful in characterizing primary renal tumors. The previous study demonstrated that CT imaging patterns of various primary renal tumors are different. In RCC, angiographic enhancement in the corticomedullary phase could be observed, however, in renal lymphoma, angiographic enhancement was not observed in any phase. In this case, because angiography enhancement was confirmed in the corticomedullary phase, CT image analysis results were consistent with those of the previous study (17). In addition, CT could be useful for screening local or distant metastases before surgical planning.

In the present case, hypoglycaemia (57 mg/dL) was detected. Although urinalysis (for detecting urine glucose) and determining serum concentration of insulin like growth factor were not performed, the patient could be tentatively diagnosed with non-islet cell tumor-induced paraneoplastic syndrome because hypoglycemia was normalized only after surgery without additional treatment. In human and equine medicine, a single rare case of paraneoplastic hypoglycemia due to RCC has been reported (5,16). Although hypoglycemia due to non-islet cell tumors has been reported in dogs (8,11), paraneoplastic hypoglycemia due to RCC in dogs has not yet been reported.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a huge canine RCC with ovarian metastasis. Furthermore, this patient was tentatively diagnosed with paraneoplastic hypoglycemia, which normalized with surgical removal of the tumor.

This study was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2021R1F1A1063399).

We thank veterinary pathologists of PATH (Seoul, Korea) for providing diagnostic supports.

  1. Araujo DCC, da Silva MA, da Veiga CCP, Fernandes JI. Renal nephroblastoma in adult dog. Braz J Vet Med 2021; 42: e107820.
    CrossRef
  2. Birdane FM, Hatipoglu F, Ortatatli M, Koc Y, Turgut K. Renal cell carcinoma in a dog: pathologic and cytologic findings. Revue Med Vet 2004; 155: 212-216.
  3. Bryan JN, Henry CJ, Turnquist SE, Tyler JW, Liptak JM, Rizzo SA, et al. Primary renal neoplasia of dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2006; 20: 1155-1160.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Chueh KS, Yeh HC, Li CC. A huge renal cell carcinoma: case report and literature review. Urol Sci 2013; 24: 58-60.
    CrossRef
  5. DiIenno N, Han E, Maitland C, Kansara V. Hypoglycemia in renal cell carcinoma: a rare paraneoplastic syndrome. Urology 2019; 124: 10-13.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Edmondson EF, Hess AM, Powers BE. Prognostic significance of histologic features in canine renal cell carcinomas: 70 nephrectomies. Vet Pathol 2015; 52: 260-268.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Insabato L, De Rosa G, Franco R, D’Onofrio V, Di Vizio D. Ovarian metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a report of three cases. Int J Surg Pathol 2003; 11: 309-312.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Kim H, Kang J, Kang B, Yang M. Hypoglycaemic crisis induced by non-islet cell tumours in two dogs. Vet Med 2019; 64: 407-416.
    CrossRef
  9. Lappin MR, Latimer KS. Hematuria and extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis in a dog with renal tubular carcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988; 192: 1289-1292.
  10. Lee K, Jung J, Byeon Y, Oh S, Seo E, Song K, et al. Renal cell carcinoma in a Pekingese dog. J Vet Clin 2005; 22: 148-152.
  11. Leifer CE, Peterson ME, Matus RE, Patnaik AK. Hypoglycemia associated with nonislet cell tumor in 13 dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985; 186: 53-55.
  12. Lucke VM, Kelly DF. Renal carcinoma in the dog. Vet Pathol 1976; 13: 264-276.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Martin KDJ, Sarangom SB, Krishna BND, Nair ND, Pillai UN, Philip SB, et al. Renal nephroblastoma in an adult dog- a case report. Vet Arhiv 2014; 84: 85-96.
  14. Paşca AS, Lazăr M. A case report of renal cell carcinoma in a dog. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2013; 65: 1286-1290.
    CrossRef
  15. Sountoulides P, Metaxa L, Cindolo L. Atypical presentations and rare metastatic sites of renal cell carcinoma: a review of case reports. J Med Case Rep 2011; 5: 429.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Swain JM, Pirie RS, Hudson NP, Else RW, Evans H, McGorum BC. Insulin-like growth factors and recurrent hypoglycemia associated with renal cell carcinoma in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19: 613-616.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Tanaka T, Akiyoshi H, Nishida H, Mie K, Lin LS, Iimori Y, et al. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography findings of canine primary renal tumors including renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and hemangiosarcoma. PLoS One 2019; 14: e0225211.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef

Article

Case Report

J Vet Clin 2022; 39(4): 168-172

Published online August 31, 2022 https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.168

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

A Rare Case of Canine Huge Renal Cell Carcinoma with Ovarian Metastasis

Jiyoung Koo1 , Woo-Jin Song1,2 , Heesoo Jo1 , Hyerin Ahn1 , Solji Choi1 , Hyohoon Jeong1,2 , Jongtae Cheong1,2 , Hyun-Jung Park1,2 , Youngmin Yun1,2

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2The Research Institute of Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea

Correspondence to:*ssong@jejunu.ac.kr (Woo-Jin Song), dvmyun@jejunu.ac.kr (Youngmin Yun)

Received: May 30, 2022; Revised: June 26, 2022; Accepted: July 1, 2022

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A 10-year-old female Pomeranian weighing 2.25 kg with a history of gradual weight loss and an intraabdominal mass confirmed with ultrasonography at a local hospital was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Jeju National University. Physical examination revealed abdominal distention. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycemia (57 mg/dL; reference range, 60-110 mg/dL). On abdominal ultrasonography, a heterogeneously hyperechoic mass measuring 7.51 × 10.6 cm was found at the level of the left kidney. Computed tomographic findings showed a unilateral left kidney mass with a 10-cm diameter and vessel contrast enhancement in the corticomedullary phase. Unilateral nephrectomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed because left ovary enlargement was observed during surgery. The renal mass was adjacent to the aorta and vena cava and attached to a portion of the small intestine, greater omentum, and left ovary. The mass was huge (12.5 × 10 × 7 cm) and was 16.5% of the body weight. Histopathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and ovarian metastasis. After surgery, clinical signs improved remarkably, and serum glucose level returned to normal. As RCC is resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, the owner decided not to proceed with postoperative adjunctive therapies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of ovarian metastasis with huge RCC in a dog.

Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, computed tomography, ovarian metastasis, nephrectomy, dog.

Introduction

Primary renal neoplasia is relatively rare in humans and dogs (3,4). It accounts for 0.3%-1.7% of all canine primary neoplasias (9), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 60% of all primary renal neoplasias (2,3). The clinical symptoms are nonspecific and include hematuria, lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss (3). Nephrectomy is the most effective treatment for RCC. The average survival period of dogs that do not undergo nephrectomy is less than 1 month, and the average survival period of dogs that undergo nephrectomy is 16 months, regardless of tumor type (3,6). In addition, the survival time of dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy is not significantly longer than that of dogs treated with surgery alone (3).

Case Description

A 10-year-old female Pomeranian weighing 2.25 kg with a history of gradual weight loss for 9 weeks and an intraabdominal mass confirmed through X-ray and ultrasonography at a local hospital was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Jeju National University. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension and increased abdominal pressure. Low albumin (2.0 g/dL; reference range, 2.5-4.4 g/dL), glucose (57 mg/dL; reference range, 60-110 mg/dL), and potassium (3.6 mmol/L; reference range, 3.7-5.8 mmol/L) levels were detected, and there were no other abnormalities on blood analysis. In radiographic views, a mass occupying half of the abdominal cavity was observed (Fig. 1A), and a heterogeneously hyperechoic mass measuring 7.51 × 10.6 cm was found at the level of the left kidney on abdominal ultrasound (Fig. 1B), whereas the right kidney was normal. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT; SOMATOM Emotion, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; pitch 0.8, scan slice thickness 2.0 mm, rotation time 0.6 s, mAs 39, kVP 130, field of view of 15 cm) with 1 mL/kg of intravenous contrast agent (Omnipaque 100 mL, GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA) in the supine position showed a unilateral left renal mass with a 10-cm diameter vessel contrast enhancement in the corticomedullary phase (Fig. 2A) and enlargement of the left ovary (Fig. 2B). Unilateral nephrectomy and ovariohysterectomy were also performed. The renal mass was adjacent to the aorta and vena cava and adhered to the small intestine, greater omentum, and left ovary. The renal mass was 12.5 × 10 × 7 cm in size (Fig. 3A), and the ovarian mass was 2 × 2 × 1 cm (Fig. 3B). After surgery, the patient weighed 1.88 kg, and the weight of the intraabdominal mass was 16.5% of the body weight.

Figure 1. Imaging of abdominal mass. (A) A mass occupying more than half of the abdominal cavity (yellow arrow) was identified on X-ray. (B) Heterogeneous hyperechoic mass at the level of left kidney was detected on abdominal ultrasound.

Figure 2. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of abdominal mass. (A) Unilateral left renal mass with vessel contrast enhancement (yellow arrow) in the corticomedullary phase was identified. (B) In addition, enlargement of left ovary (yellow arrow) was detected.

Figure 3. Surgically removed mass. (A) Left kidney (12.5 × 10 × 7 cm) and (B) left ovary (2 × 2 × 1 cm; yellow arrow) were adherent to each other.

On histopathological examination, the renal mass was confirmed to be a renal tubular cell carcinoma. The neoplastic mass mainly consisted of cuboidal, columnar, or polygonal cells. In general, the eosinophilic cytoplasm and nucleus are pushed into the center or marginal regions of the cell. Large nucleoli in the cells were clearly observed, and the mitotic index was 37 at 10 fields of ×400 magnification. Necrosis was also observed in the mass (Fig. 4A). The left ovary was also diagnosed as carcinoma and showed a tubular pattern similar to that of the renal mass. It is highly likely that the RCC had metastasized to the ovary. The mitotic index was 1-5, and necrosis was observed inside the mass (Fig. 4B).

Figure 4. Histopathologic findings. (A) The left kidney mass mainly consisted of cuboidal, columnar, or polygonal cells with malignancy, which was consistent with renal cell carcinoma (H&E, ×400). (B) Malignant tubular pattern similar to the left kidney mass was detected in the left ovary (H&E, ×400).

As RCC is resistant to chemotherapy (3), we decided to follow-up the patient without chemotherapy. At day 7 after surgery, serum chemistry showed restored albumin (3.0 g/dL; reference range, 2.5-4.4 g/dL), glucose (94 mg/dL; reference range, 60-110 mg/dL), and potassium (4.2 mmol/L; reference range, 3.7-5.8 mmol/L) levels. At day 42 and 150 after surgery, the dog weighed 2.3 kg, and there was no evidence of recurrence or further metastasis of the tumor on X-ray and abdominal ultrasound. Unfortunately, the patient was lost to follow-up after the last visit (150 days after surgery).

Discussion

In this case, the mass was sufficiently large to occupy half of the abdominal cavity and was 16.5% of the body weight. In previous studies, RCC did not attain sufficiently massive size to occupy half of the abdominal cavity (10,12,14), however, nephroblastoma could be massive (1,13). Lucke et al. have reported that variant sizes of RCC (20 × 16 × 9, 6 × 2 × 2, 7 × 5 × 7, 12 × 6, and 8 × 7 × 5 cm) were observed in medium- and large-breed dogs including Collie, Alsatian, Boxer, Afghan, and Labrador (12). Furthermore, in human, RCC with a diameter of >20 cm is extremely rare and can be diagnosed as a huge RCC (4). In the present case, it is noteworthy that the renal mass was remarkably larger (12.5 × 10 × 7 cm in a dog weighing 2.5 kg) than typical canine RCC.

Ovarian metastasis of RCC was observed in this case. While ovarian primary neoplasia usually shows a cystic or papillary proliferative pattern on histopathology, in this case, a tubular pattern similar to RCC was detected. In addition, the left kidney and left ovary were adherent to each other. Therefore, it was tempting to speculate that RCC had metastasized to the ovary in this case. According to previous studies on human RCC, ovarian metastasis was confirmed in only 0.5% of all cases (7,15). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of ovarian metastasis of RCC in dogs.

Tanaka et al. (17) recently revealed that contrast-enhanced CT could be helpful in characterizing primary renal tumors. The previous study demonstrated that CT imaging patterns of various primary renal tumors are different. In RCC, angiographic enhancement in the corticomedullary phase could be observed, however, in renal lymphoma, angiographic enhancement was not observed in any phase. In this case, because angiography enhancement was confirmed in the corticomedullary phase, CT image analysis results were consistent with those of the previous study (17). In addition, CT could be useful for screening local or distant metastases before surgical planning.

In the present case, hypoglycaemia (57 mg/dL) was detected. Although urinalysis (for detecting urine glucose) and determining serum concentration of insulin like growth factor were not performed, the patient could be tentatively diagnosed with non-islet cell tumor-induced paraneoplastic syndrome because hypoglycemia was normalized only after surgery without additional treatment. In human and equine medicine, a single rare case of paraneoplastic hypoglycemia due to RCC has been reported (5,16). Although hypoglycemia due to non-islet cell tumors has been reported in dogs (8,11), paraneoplastic hypoglycemia due to RCC in dogs has not yet been reported.

Conclusions

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a huge canine RCC with ovarian metastasis. Furthermore, this patient was tentatively diagnosed with paraneoplastic hypoglycemia, which normalized with surgical removal of the tumor.

Source of Funding

This study was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2021R1F1A1063399).

Acknowledgements

We thank veterinary pathologists of PATH (Seoul, Korea) for providing diagnostic supports.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors have no conflicting interests.

Fig 1.

Figure 1.Imaging of abdominal mass. (A) A mass occupying more than half of the abdominal cavity (yellow arrow) was identified on X-ray. (B) Heterogeneous hyperechoic mass at the level of left kidney was detected on abdominal ultrasound.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 168-172https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.168

Fig 2.

Figure 2.Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of abdominal mass. (A) Unilateral left renal mass with vessel contrast enhancement (yellow arrow) in the corticomedullary phase was identified. (B) In addition, enlargement of left ovary (yellow arrow) was detected.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 168-172https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.168

Fig 3.

Figure 3.Surgically removed mass. (A) Left kidney (12.5 × 10 × 7 cm) and (B) left ovary (2 × 2 × 1 cm; yellow arrow) were adherent to each other.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 168-172https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.168

Fig 4.

Figure 4.Histopathologic findings. (A) The left kidney mass mainly consisted of cuboidal, columnar, or polygonal cells with malignancy, which was consistent with renal cell carcinoma (H&E, ×400). (B) Malignant tubular pattern similar to the left kidney mass was detected in the left ovary (H&E, ×400).
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 168-172https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.168

References

  1. Araujo DCC, da Silva MA, da Veiga CCP, Fernandes JI. Renal nephroblastoma in adult dog. Braz J Vet Med 2021; 42: e107820.
    CrossRef
  2. Birdane FM, Hatipoglu F, Ortatatli M, Koc Y, Turgut K. Renal cell carcinoma in a dog: pathologic and cytologic findings. Revue Med Vet 2004; 155: 212-216.
  3. Bryan JN, Henry CJ, Turnquist SE, Tyler JW, Liptak JM, Rizzo SA, et al. Primary renal neoplasia of dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2006; 20: 1155-1160.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Chueh KS, Yeh HC, Li CC. A huge renal cell carcinoma: case report and literature review. Urol Sci 2013; 24: 58-60.
    CrossRef
  5. DiIenno N, Han E, Maitland C, Kansara V. Hypoglycemia in renal cell carcinoma: a rare paraneoplastic syndrome. Urology 2019; 124: 10-13.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Edmondson EF, Hess AM, Powers BE. Prognostic significance of histologic features in canine renal cell carcinomas: 70 nephrectomies. Vet Pathol 2015; 52: 260-268.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Insabato L, De Rosa G, Franco R, D’Onofrio V, Di Vizio D. Ovarian metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a report of three cases. Int J Surg Pathol 2003; 11: 309-312.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Kim H, Kang J, Kang B, Yang M. Hypoglycaemic crisis induced by non-islet cell tumours in two dogs. Vet Med 2019; 64: 407-416.
    CrossRef
  9. Lappin MR, Latimer KS. Hematuria and extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis in a dog with renal tubular carcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988; 192: 1289-1292.
  10. Lee K, Jung J, Byeon Y, Oh S, Seo E, Song K, et al. Renal cell carcinoma in a Pekingese dog. J Vet Clin 2005; 22: 148-152.
  11. Leifer CE, Peterson ME, Matus RE, Patnaik AK. Hypoglycemia associated with nonislet cell tumor in 13 dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985; 186: 53-55.
  12. Lucke VM, Kelly DF. Renal carcinoma in the dog. Vet Pathol 1976; 13: 264-276.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Martin KDJ, Sarangom SB, Krishna BND, Nair ND, Pillai UN, Philip SB, et al. Renal nephroblastoma in an adult dog- a case report. Vet Arhiv 2014; 84: 85-96.
  14. Paşca AS, Lazăr M. A case report of renal cell carcinoma in a dog. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2013; 65: 1286-1290.
    CrossRef
  15. Sountoulides P, Metaxa L, Cindolo L. Atypical presentations and rare metastatic sites of renal cell carcinoma: a review of case reports. J Med Case Rep 2011; 5: 429.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Swain JM, Pirie RS, Hudson NP, Else RW, Evans H, McGorum BC. Insulin-like growth factors and recurrent hypoglycemia associated with renal cell carcinoma in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19: 613-616.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Tanaka T, Akiyoshi H, Nishida H, Mie K, Lin LS, Iimori Y, et al. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography findings of canine primary renal tumors including renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and hemangiosarcoma. PLoS One 2019; 14: e0225211.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef

Vol.39 No.4 August, 2022

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