검색
검색 팝업 닫기

Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords

Article

J Vet Clin 2022; 39(4): 173-176

https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.173

Published online August 31, 2022

Effectiveness of a Hockey-Stick Probe to Localize a Catheter Fragment in a Dog

Kitae Kim , Dayoung Oh , Dongmin Shin , Junghee Yoon

College of Veterinary Medicine and the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea

Correspondence to:*heeyoon@snu.ac.kr

Received: December 7, 2021; Revised: April 17, 2022; Accepted: April 25, 2022

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

Intravenous catheterization is a common procedure in human and veterinary medicine. Occasionally, a catheter might break within the blood vessel, and the fragment may cause embolization, infections, or other severe complications, and therefore must be removed promptly. For a successful and low-risk removal, the fragment should be localized accurately; however, ultrasound may be challenging to perform on small dogs due to inadequate probes. We report the case of a 2-year-old, 2.6 kg, intact female toy poodle that presented to the veterinary medical center owing to a recent onion intake; the owner requested to induce emesis. A 24 gauge peripheral intravenous catheter was inserted into the cephalic vein prior to the emetic injection. When the clinician removed the catheter, a device breakage was observed. A tourniquet was applied immediately proximal to the elbow. Ultrasonography was performed with a high-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer, also called a hockey-stick probe, to localize the fragment. An additional ultrasound was performed before surgery to confirm the location of the catheter piece, which migrated 5 cm proximally. Afterward, a surgical intervention allowed us to retrieve the fragment. This report highlights the effectiveness of a hockey-stick probe to determine the location of a catheter fragment in small breed dogs.

Keywords: hockey-stick probe, broken catheter, cephalic vein, ultrasonography, dog.

Several catheterization types are routinely performed in veterinary and human medicine. Among them, intravenous (IV) catheterization is essential to manage veterinary patients; it is one of the most common medical procedures to administer medications and fluids. When removing a peripheral venous catheter, these devices should not be cut, twisted, or overmanipulated to avoid breakage (8). However, ruptures might still occur despite a meticulous removal technique. When an IV catheter breaks, the detached distal part could migrate to the central venous system, heart, and pulmonary circulation (3,14).

In both human and veterinary medicine, several cases of catheter fragment embolism have been reported (3,6-8,14,15,17,18). Foreign bodies in the vascular system involve a high risk of embolization, perforation, and infection (13). They may also cause severe complications, such as lung abscesses, pulmonary embolism, dysrhythmias, endocarditis, cardiac perforation, sepsis, and even death (12,14). Various techniques, such as surgery, non-surgical removal, and interventional procedures, have been introduced in human and veterinary medicine to retrieve foreign bodies in the right ventricle, vena cava, or pulmonary artery (1,5,9-12).

Several reports described localizing the catheter fragment with different imaging modalities in dogs, including radiography, fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) (6,15,17). Regarding ultrasound to localize a catheter piece in dogs, a study reported that this modality is not appropriate due to the similar appearance of the catheter and blood vessel, thereby hindering fragment identification (6). In contrast, another report mentioned that the catheter fragment was properly visualized using ultrasound with a conventional linear probe, resulting in successful surgery (17).

This report describes the use of ultrasound with a high-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer (also called a hockey-stick probe) to localize the catheter fragment in the cephalic vein of a toy poodle dog.

A 2-year-old, 2.6 kg, intact female toy poodle presented to the clinic due to a recent onion intake, and the owner requested to induce emesis. The dog appeared bright, alert, and responsive, with no contributory clinical signs. A 24 gauge IV catheter was inserted into the right cephalic vein, and 50 mg/kg of tranexamic acid was administered through the IV line. Emesis was successfully induced with the drug injection. No adverse effects of the medicine, including tonic-clonic seizure, were observed. At the time of discharge, the 24-gauge IV catheter was removed; however, the retrieved catheter was markedly shorter than expected. A catheter breakage was assumed; thus, a tourniquet was applied proximally to the right elbow. Palpation did not aid in localizing the catheter fragment. An ultrasound scan was performed with a high-frequency linear probe (18–4 MHz, surface area: 6 × 1 cm, Fig. 1A), eL18-4 (Philips Ultrasound Inc.; Shanghai, China). However, due to the linear probe’s relatively large scanning area and the uneven surface of the patient’s forelimb, the cephalic vein and broken catheter were poorly visualized. Thus, a high-frequency small-footprint linear array probe, called a hockey-stick probe (15–7 MHz, surface area: 3 × 1 cm, Fig. 1B), L15-7io (Philips Ultrasound Inc.; Shanghai, China) was used. The intravenous catheter fragment appeared as two parallel hyperechoic lines of approximately 1.2 cm in length in the lumen of the right cephalic vein. The location of the catheter fragment was confirmed and marked on the skin before venotomy. Another IV line was inserted into the left cephalic vein.

Figure 1.(A) The high-frequency linear transducer (18–4 MHz) first used in this case report. The scanning area is 6 × 1 cm. (B) High-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer, also called hockey-stick probe (15–7 MHz). Its reduced contact area (3 × 1 cm) allowed us to scan the narrow and uneven surface of the right forelimb.

The ultrasound with the hockey-stick probe was repeated immediately before catheter removal to confirm the fragment’s location. This scan was performed in a sterile manner following the surgical site preparation. The fragment had migrated proximally, approximately 5 cm from the marked line (Fig. 2).

Figure 2.The intravenous catheter fragment appeared as two parallel 1.2 cm hyperechoic lines (arrows at the proximal and distal ends of the fragment) in the lumen of the right cephalic vein (double arrow). A high-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer was used.

After the re-localization of the fragment, venotomy was performed with minimal manipulation of the patient to prevent further migration of the catheter piece. A 2.5 cm skin incision was performed at the expected fragment location. The cephalic vein was identified and carefully isolated, and the catheter was located within the vessel. Curved Mosquito forceps were used to hold the fragment in position, and a stab incision of the vein was performed at the level of the proximal margin of the fragment using a number 15 blade (Fig. 3A). Additional Mosquito forceps were used to grasp the proximal end of the catheter piece and retrieve it (Fig. 3B). The applied tourniquet was released, and the vascular puncture was compressed with sterile gauze for approximately 3 min to achieve complete hemostasis. The subcutaneous tissue and skin were closed routinely with 4-0 polydioxanone II (Ethicon, Raritan, NJ, USA). The anesthetic infusion and patient’s recovery were uneventful.

Figure 3.(A) The proximal tip of the catheter fragment (arrow) was visible after the stab incision of the cephalic vein (dashed arrow). Mosquito forceps were used to grasp the fragment and prevent further migration. (B) The catheter fragment was retrieved through venotomy.

Stitches were removed ten days following surgery, and no significant clinical sign related to the treatment was observed. Discomfort or swelling was not identified at the 2 month follow-up.

In the present case, the IV catheter was noted to be broken upon removal. The fragment was located clearly with ultrasound using a hockey-stick probe, and surgically removed without complications.

A hockey-stick probe is suitable for musculoskeletal and peripheral vascular regions and is mainly used in intraoperative procedures (20). In human medicine, the hockey-stick probe is used to visualize vessels in neonates and pediatric patients (2,16). It is also widely used in veterinary medicine for areas with a limited surface, and to evaluate ligaments and tendons due to its high resolution and ability to visualize the near field as well as its reduced contact area as compared to a general linear probe (4,10). Our patient was smaller than the patient in the previous veterinary case report that successfully used ultrasound (17); thus, the conventional linear probe was inappropriate to visualize the catheter fragment under the uneven surface of the patient’s forelimb since the contact was insufficient. Instead, the hockey-stick probe was the most appropriate option because it could localize the near-field foreign body in this narrow and uneven location owing to its sufficiently high frequency and reduced area. Therefore, the hockey-stick probe may be an optimal option to visualize a catheter fragment, especially in small breed dogs, if it is not detected with a conventional linear probe.

As we performed an additional ultrasound prior to the skin incision, we noted the migration of the catheter, approximately 5 cm proximal to the line previously drawn on the skin. In humans, a study reported that ultrasound ensured a prompt localization, preventing the fragment migration to the central veins or heart and further complications (19). In this case, a rapid assessment was possible with ultrasound, allowing treatment without complications. However, migration of the fragment was noted through repeated ultrasound scans. In the reports using CT and ultrasonography in dogs, an extended incision was necessary to retrieve the catheter fragment, likely due to peripheral migration after localization (6,17). Thus, we suggest performing an additional ultrasound immediately before surgery to allow a minimal skin and small vein incision.

Despite the usefulness of ultrasound for a peripheral catheter fragment, a centrally migrated piece might not be detected with this technique. In this case, other modalities may be needed for localization, such as radiography, fluoroscopy, or CT (6).

In conclusion, ultrasonography with a hockey-stick probe may be an ideal imaging modality to locate a catheter fragment in a peripheral vessel of small breed dogs. Moreover, an additional ultrasound immediately before surgery can determine the exact location of the fragment in case of catheter migration.

The authors have not received any specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

  1. Ames TR, Hunter DW, Caywood DD. Percutaneous transvenous removal of a broken jugular catheter from the right ventricle of a foal. Equine Vet J 1991; 23: 392-393.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Barone G, Pittiruti M, Ancora G, Vento G, Tota F, D’Andrea V. Centrally inserted central catheters in preterm neonates with weight below 1500 g by ultrasound-guided access to the brachio-cephalic vein. J Vasc Access 2021; 22: 344-352.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Culp WT, Weisse C, Berent AC, Getman LM, Schaer TP, Solomon JA. Percutaneous endovascular retrieval of an intravascular foreign body in five dogs, a goat, and a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232: 1850-1856.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. De Luca R, Forzoni L, Gelli F, Bamber J. An educational overview of ultrasound probe types and their fields of application. Arch Acoust 2021; 46: 3-15.
  5. Fox PR, Sos TA, Bond BR. Nonsurgical removal of a catheter embolus from the heart of a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985; 187: 275-276.
  6. Frau Tascon M, Dempsey L, Tayari H, Brissot H, Anselmi C. CT localisation of a broken intravenous cannula in two dogs. Vet Rec Case Rep 2020; 8: e001187.
    CrossRef
  7. Gentile JM, Bulmer BJ, Heaney AM, Bordelon S. Endovascular retrieval of embolized jugular catheter fragments in three dogs using a nitinol gooseneck snare. J Vet Cardiol 2008; 10: 81-85.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Goodspeed R, Lee BY. What if ...: you’re starting an IV and the catheter breaks off in the vein? J Ambul Care Manage 2009; 32: 174-175.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Gupta AK, Purkayastha S, Krishnamoorthy T. Percutaneous retrieval of intravascular broken catheter fragments. A novel technique using a balloon. Interv Neuroradiol 2005; 11: 149-154.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Kiefer KM, von Pfeil DJF. Shoulder region. In: Duerr FM, editor. Canine lameness. Hoboken: Wiley Blackwell. 2019: 223-254.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Lees MJ, Read RA, Klein KT, Chennel KR, Clark WT, Weldon A. Surgical retrieval of a broken jugular catheter from the right ventricle of a foal. Equine Vet J 1989; 21: 384-387.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Little D, Keene BW, Bruton C, Smith LJ, Powell S, Jones SL. Percutaneous retrieval of a jugular catheter fragment from the pulmonary artery of a foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 220: 212-214, 184.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Mallmann CV, Wolf KJ, Wacker FK. Retrieval of vascular foreign bodies using a self-made wire snare. Acta Radiol 2008; 49: 1124-1128.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Mariano BP Jr, Roper CL, Staple TW. Accidental migration of an intravenous infusion catheter from the arm to the lung. Radiology 1966; 86: 736-738.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Na YJ, Ko HY, Geum M, Jeon S, Kim SE, Kim HJ. Retrieval of an intravascular catheter tip fracture in a dog. J Vet Clin 2020; 37: 270-272.
    CrossRef
  16. Pirotte T, Veyckemans F. Ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation in infants and children: a novel approach. Br J Anaesth 2007; 98: 509-514.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Porato M, Marolf V, Etienne AL. Catheter fragment embolism in a dog. Vet Rec Case Rep 2020; 8: e001139.
    CrossRef
  18. Schechter MA, O’Brien PJ, Cox MW. Retrieval of iatrogenic intravascular foreign bodies. J Vasc Surg 2013; 57: 276-281.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Schraverus PJ, van Rijswijk S, Tuinman PR. Case report: using ultrasound to prevent a broken catheter from migrating to the heart. F1000Res 2017; 6: 616.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  20. St John M, Durham HE Jr. Echocardiography and doppler study. In: Durham HE Jr, editor. Cardiology for veterinary technicians and nurses. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. 2017: 133-178.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Article

Case Report

J Vet Clin 2022; 39(4): 173-176

Published online August 31, 2022 https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.173

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

Effectiveness of a Hockey-Stick Probe to Localize a Catheter Fragment in a Dog

Kitae Kim , Dayoung Oh , Dongmin Shin , Junghee Yoon

College of Veterinary Medicine and the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea

Correspondence to:*heeyoon@snu.ac.kr

Received: December 7, 2021; Revised: April 17, 2022; Accepted: April 25, 2022

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Intravenous catheterization is a common procedure in human and veterinary medicine. Occasionally, a catheter might break within the blood vessel, and the fragment may cause embolization, infections, or other severe complications, and therefore must be removed promptly. For a successful and low-risk removal, the fragment should be localized accurately; however, ultrasound may be challenging to perform on small dogs due to inadequate probes. We report the case of a 2-year-old, 2.6 kg, intact female toy poodle that presented to the veterinary medical center owing to a recent onion intake; the owner requested to induce emesis. A 24 gauge peripheral intravenous catheter was inserted into the cephalic vein prior to the emetic injection. When the clinician removed the catheter, a device breakage was observed. A tourniquet was applied immediately proximal to the elbow. Ultrasonography was performed with a high-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer, also called a hockey-stick probe, to localize the fragment. An additional ultrasound was performed before surgery to confirm the location of the catheter piece, which migrated 5 cm proximally. Afterward, a surgical intervention allowed us to retrieve the fragment. This report highlights the effectiveness of a hockey-stick probe to determine the location of a catheter fragment in small breed dogs.

Keywords: hockey-stick probe, broken catheter, cephalic vein, ultrasonography, dog.

Introduction

Several catheterization types are routinely performed in veterinary and human medicine. Among them, intravenous (IV) catheterization is essential to manage veterinary patients; it is one of the most common medical procedures to administer medications and fluids. When removing a peripheral venous catheter, these devices should not be cut, twisted, or overmanipulated to avoid breakage (8). However, ruptures might still occur despite a meticulous removal technique. When an IV catheter breaks, the detached distal part could migrate to the central venous system, heart, and pulmonary circulation (3,14).

In both human and veterinary medicine, several cases of catheter fragment embolism have been reported (3,6-8,14,15,17,18). Foreign bodies in the vascular system involve a high risk of embolization, perforation, and infection (13). They may also cause severe complications, such as lung abscesses, pulmonary embolism, dysrhythmias, endocarditis, cardiac perforation, sepsis, and even death (12,14). Various techniques, such as surgery, non-surgical removal, and interventional procedures, have been introduced in human and veterinary medicine to retrieve foreign bodies in the right ventricle, vena cava, or pulmonary artery (1,5,9-12).

Several reports described localizing the catheter fragment with different imaging modalities in dogs, including radiography, fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT) (6,15,17). Regarding ultrasound to localize a catheter piece in dogs, a study reported that this modality is not appropriate due to the similar appearance of the catheter and blood vessel, thereby hindering fragment identification (6). In contrast, another report mentioned that the catheter fragment was properly visualized using ultrasound with a conventional linear probe, resulting in successful surgery (17).

This report describes the use of ultrasound with a high-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer (also called a hockey-stick probe) to localize the catheter fragment in the cephalic vein of a toy poodle dog.

Case Report

A 2-year-old, 2.6 kg, intact female toy poodle presented to the clinic due to a recent onion intake, and the owner requested to induce emesis. The dog appeared bright, alert, and responsive, with no contributory clinical signs. A 24 gauge IV catheter was inserted into the right cephalic vein, and 50 mg/kg of tranexamic acid was administered through the IV line. Emesis was successfully induced with the drug injection. No adverse effects of the medicine, including tonic-clonic seizure, were observed. At the time of discharge, the 24-gauge IV catheter was removed; however, the retrieved catheter was markedly shorter than expected. A catheter breakage was assumed; thus, a tourniquet was applied proximally to the right elbow. Palpation did not aid in localizing the catheter fragment. An ultrasound scan was performed with a high-frequency linear probe (18–4 MHz, surface area: 6 × 1 cm, Fig. 1A), eL18-4 (Philips Ultrasound Inc.; Shanghai, China). However, due to the linear probe’s relatively large scanning area and the uneven surface of the patient’s forelimb, the cephalic vein and broken catheter were poorly visualized. Thus, a high-frequency small-footprint linear array probe, called a hockey-stick probe (15–7 MHz, surface area: 3 × 1 cm, Fig. 1B), L15-7io (Philips Ultrasound Inc.; Shanghai, China) was used. The intravenous catheter fragment appeared as two parallel hyperechoic lines of approximately 1.2 cm in length in the lumen of the right cephalic vein. The location of the catheter fragment was confirmed and marked on the skin before venotomy. Another IV line was inserted into the left cephalic vein.

Figure 1. (A) The high-frequency linear transducer (18–4 MHz) first used in this case report. The scanning area is 6 × 1 cm. (B) High-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer, also called hockey-stick probe (15–7 MHz). Its reduced contact area (3 × 1 cm) allowed us to scan the narrow and uneven surface of the right forelimb.

The ultrasound with the hockey-stick probe was repeated immediately before catheter removal to confirm the fragment’s location. This scan was performed in a sterile manner following the surgical site preparation. The fragment had migrated proximally, approximately 5 cm from the marked line (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. The intravenous catheter fragment appeared as two parallel 1.2 cm hyperechoic lines (arrows at the proximal and distal ends of the fragment) in the lumen of the right cephalic vein (double arrow). A high-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer was used.

After the re-localization of the fragment, venotomy was performed with minimal manipulation of the patient to prevent further migration of the catheter piece. A 2.5 cm skin incision was performed at the expected fragment location. The cephalic vein was identified and carefully isolated, and the catheter was located within the vessel. Curved Mosquito forceps were used to hold the fragment in position, and a stab incision of the vein was performed at the level of the proximal margin of the fragment using a number 15 blade (Fig. 3A). Additional Mosquito forceps were used to grasp the proximal end of the catheter piece and retrieve it (Fig. 3B). The applied tourniquet was released, and the vascular puncture was compressed with sterile gauze for approximately 3 min to achieve complete hemostasis. The subcutaneous tissue and skin were closed routinely with 4-0 polydioxanone II (Ethicon, Raritan, NJ, USA). The anesthetic infusion and patient’s recovery were uneventful.

Figure 3. (A) The proximal tip of the catheter fragment (arrow) was visible after the stab incision of the cephalic vein (dashed arrow). Mosquito forceps were used to grasp the fragment and prevent further migration. (B) The catheter fragment was retrieved through venotomy.

Stitches were removed ten days following surgery, and no significant clinical sign related to the treatment was observed. Discomfort or swelling was not identified at the 2 month follow-up.

Discussion

In the present case, the IV catheter was noted to be broken upon removal. The fragment was located clearly with ultrasound using a hockey-stick probe, and surgically removed without complications.

A hockey-stick probe is suitable for musculoskeletal and peripheral vascular regions and is mainly used in intraoperative procedures (20). In human medicine, the hockey-stick probe is used to visualize vessels in neonates and pediatric patients (2,16). It is also widely used in veterinary medicine for areas with a limited surface, and to evaluate ligaments and tendons due to its high resolution and ability to visualize the near field as well as its reduced contact area as compared to a general linear probe (4,10). Our patient was smaller than the patient in the previous veterinary case report that successfully used ultrasound (17); thus, the conventional linear probe was inappropriate to visualize the catheter fragment under the uneven surface of the patient’s forelimb since the contact was insufficient. Instead, the hockey-stick probe was the most appropriate option because it could localize the near-field foreign body in this narrow and uneven location owing to its sufficiently high frequency and reduced area. Therefore, the hockey-stick probe may be an optimal option to visualize a catheter fragment, especially in small breed dogs, if it is not detected with a conventional linear probe.

As we performed an additional ultrasound prior to the skin incision, we noted the migration of the catheter, approximately 5 cm proximal to the line previously drawn on the skin. In humans, a study reported that ultrasound ensured a prompt localization, preventing the fragment migration to the central veins or heart and further complications (19). In this case, a rapid assessment was possible with ultrasound, allowing treatment without complications. However, migration of the fragment was noted through repeated ultrasound scans. In the reports using CT and ultrasonography in dogs, an extended incision was necessary to retrieve the catheter fragment, likely due to peripheral migration after localization (6,17). Thus, we suggest performing an additional ultrasound immediately before surgery to allow a minimal skin and small vein incision.

Despite the usefulness of ultrasound for a peripheral catheter fragment, a centrally migrated piece might not be detected with this technique. In this case, other modalities may be needed for localization, such as radiography, fluoroscopy, or CT (6).

Conclusions

In conclusion, ultrasonography with a hockey-stick probe may be an ideal imaging modality to locate a catheter fragment in a peripheral vessel of small breed dogs. Moreover, an additional ultrasound immediately before surgery can determine the exact location of the fragment in case of catheter migration.

Source of Funding

The authors have not received any specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Acknowledgements

None.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors have no conflicting interests.

Fig 1.

Figure 1.(A) The high-frequency linear transducer (18–4 MHz) first used in this case report. The scanning area is 6 × 1 cm. (B) High-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer, also called hockey-stick probe (15–7 MHz). Its reduced contact area (3 × 1 cm) allowed us to scan the narrow and uneven surface of the right forelimb.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 173-176https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.173

Fig 2.

Figure 2.The intravenous catheter fragment appeared as two parallel 1.2 cm hyperechoic lines (arrows at the proximal and distal ends of the fragment) in the lumen of the right cephalic vein (double arrow). A high-frequency small-footprint linear array transducer was used.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 173-176https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.173

Fig 3.

Figure 3.(A) The proximal tip of the catheter fragment (arrow) was visible after the stab incision of the cephalic vein (dashed arrow). Mosquito forceps were used to grasp the fragment and prevent further migration. (B) The catheter fragment was retrieved through venotomy.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 173-176https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.4.173

References

  1. Ames TR, Hunter DW, Caywood DD. Percutaneous transvenous removal of a broken jugular catheter from the right ventricle of a foal. Equine Vet J 1991; 23: 392-393.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Barone G, Pittiruti M, Ancora G, Vento G, Tota F, D’Andrea V. Centrally inserted central catheters in preterm neonates with weight below 1500 g by ultrasound-guided access to the brachio-cephalic vein. J Vasc Access 2021; 22: 344-352.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Culp WT, Weisse C, Berent AC, Getman LM, Schaer TP, Solomon JA. Percutaneous endovascular retrieval of an intravascular foreign body in five dogs, a goat, and a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232: 1850-1856.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. De Luca R, Forzoni L, Gelli F, Bamber J. An educational overview of ultrasound probe types and their fields of application. Arch Acoust 2021; 46: 3-15.
  5. Fox PR, Sos TA, Bond BR. Nonsurgical removal of a catheter embolus from the heart of a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985; 187: 275-276.
  6. Frau Tascon M, Dempsey L, Tayari H, Brissot H, Anselmi C. CT localisation of a broken intravenous cannula in two dogs. Vet Rec Case Rep 2020; 8: e001187.
    CrossRef
  7. Gentile JM, Bulmer BJ, Heaney AM, Bordelon S. Endovascular retrieval of embolized jugular catheter fragments in three dogs using a nitinol gooseneck snare. J Vet Cardiol 2008; 10: 81-85.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Goodspeed R, Lee BY. What if ...: you’re starting an IV and the catheter breaks off in the vein? J Ambul Care Manage 2009; 32: 174-175.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Gupta AK, Purkayastha S, Krishnamoorthy T. Percutaneous retrieval of intravascular broken catheter fragments. A novel technique using a balloon. Interv Neuroradiol 2005; 11: 149-154.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Kiefer KM, von Pfeil DJF. Shoulder region. In: Duerr FM, editor. Canine lameness. Hoboken: Wiley Blackwell. 2019: 223-254.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Lees MJ, Read RA, Klein KT, Chennel KR, Clark WT, Weldon A. Surgical retrieval of a broken jugular catheter from the right ventricle of a foal. Equine Vet J 1989; 21: 384-387.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Little D, Keene BW, Bruton C, Smith LJ, Powell S, Jones SL. Percutaneous retrieval of a jugular catheter fragment from the pulmonary artery of a foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 220: 212-214, 184.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Mallmann CV, Wolf KJ, Wacker FK. Retrieval of vascular foreign bodies using a self-made wire snare. Acta Radiol 2008; 49: 1124-1128.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Mariano BP Jr, Roper CL, Staple TW. Accidental migration of an intravenous infusion catheter from the arm to the lung. Radiology 1966; 86: 736-738.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Na YJ, Ko HY, Geum M, Jeon S, Kim SE, Kim HJ. Retrieval of an intravascular catheter tip fracture in a dog. J Vet Clin 2020; 37: 270-272.
    CrossRef
  16. Pirotte T, Veyckemans F. Ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation in infants and children: a novel approach. Br J Anaesth 2007; 98: 509-514.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Porato M, Marolf V, Etienne AL. Catheter fragment embolism in a dog. Vet Rec Case Rep 2020; 8: e001139.
    CrossRef
  18. Schechter MA, O’Brien PJ, Cox MW. Retrieval of iatrogenic intravascular foreign bodies. J Vasc Surg 2013; 57: 276-281.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Schraverus PJ, van Rijswijk S, Tuinman PR. Case report: using ultrasound to prevent a broken catheter from migrating to the heart. F1000Res 2017; 6: 616.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  20. St John M, Durham HE Jr. Echocardiography and doppler study. In: Durham HE Jr, editor. Cardiology for veterinary technicians and nurses. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. 2017: 133-178.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Vol.39 No.4 August, 2022

qrcode
qrcode
The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics

pISSN 1598-298X
eISSN 2384-0749

Stats or Metrics

Share this article on :

  • line