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Article

J Vet Clin 2016; 33(6): 340-345

https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2016.12.33.6.340

Published online December 31, 2016

Determination of Femoral and Tibial Joint Reference Angles in Small-breed Dogs

Jooho Kim, Suyoung Heo, Jiyoung Na, Namsoo Kim, Minsu Kim, Seongmok Jeong, HaeBeom Lee

*College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea
**College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

Abstract

The present study determined the normal reference ranges for the femoral and tibial joint orientation angles of small-breed dogs. For this purpose, 60 each of cadaveric canine femurs and tibias from normal small-breed dogs (Maltese, Poodle, Shih Tzu, Yorkshire Terrier) were examined with radiographs and photographs. Axial and frontal radiographs and photographs of each bone were obtained, from which anteversion and inclination angles, anatomic lateral proximal and distal femoral angles (aLPFA and aLDFA), mechanical lateral proximal and distal femoral angles (mLPFA and mLDFA), and mechanical medial proximal and distal tibial angles (mMPTA and mMDTA) were measured. The 95% CI for radiographic values of all femurs and tibiae were anteversion angle, 23.4-27.4°; inclination angle, 128.4-130.4°; aLPFA, 117.8-122.1°; aLDFA, 93.7-95.2°; mLPFA 113.8-117.3°; mLDFA 99.2-100.5°; mMPTA 96.8-98.5°; mMDTA 89.4-90.7°. The Maltese had a larger anteversion angle than the Poodle and the Yorkshire Terrier and a larger mLPFA than the Poodle. In the comparison between the radiographs and the photographs, significant differences were found in the anteversion angle, mLPFA, mMPTA, and mMDTA. The established normal reference values might be useful for determining whether a valgus or varus deformity of the femur or the tibia is present and if so, the degree of angular correction needed.

Keywords: limb alignment, angular deformity, joint reference angles, corrective osteotomy, small-breed dog

Article

J Vet Clin 2016; 33(6): 340-345

Published online December 31, 2016 https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2016.12.33.6.340

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

Determination of Femoral and Tibial Joint Reference Angles in Small-breed Dogs

Jooho Kim, Suyoung Heo, Jiyoung Na, Namsoo Kim, Minsu Kim, Seongmok Jeong, HaeBeom Lee

*College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea
**College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea

Abstract

The present study determined the normal reference ranges for the femoral and tibial joint orientation angles of small-breed dogs. For this purpose, 60 each of cadaveric canine femurs and tibias from normal small-breed dogs (Maltese, Poodle, Shih Tzu, Yorkshire Terrier) were examined with radiographs and photographs. Axial and frontal radiographs and photographs of each bone were obtained, from which anteversion and inclination angles, anatomic lateral proximal and distal femoral angles (aLPFA and aLDFA), mechanical lateral proximal and distal femoral angles (mLPFA and mLDFA), and mechanical medial proximal and distal tibial angles (mMPTA and mMDTA) were measured. The 95% CI for radiographic values of all femurs and tibiae were anteversion angle, 23.4-27.4°; inclination angle, 128.4-130.4°; aLPFA, 117.8-122.1°; aLDFA, 93.7-95.2°; mLPFA 113.8-117.3°; mLDFA 99.2-100.5°; mMPTA 96.8-98.5°; mMDTA 89.4-90.7°. The Maltese had a larger anteversion angle than the Poodle and the Yorkshire Terrier and a larger mLPFA than the Poodle. In the comparison between the radiographs and the photographs, significant differences were found in the anteversion angle, mLPFA, mMPTA, and mMDTA. The established normal reference values might be useful for determining whether a valgus or varus deformity of the femur or the tibia is present and if so, the degree of angular correction needed.

Keywords: limb alignment, angular deformity, joint reference angles, corrective osteotomy, small-breed dog

Vol.41 No.2 April 2024

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The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics

pISSN 1598-298X
eISSN 2384-0749

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