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J Vet Clin 2022; 39(1): 23-27

https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.1.23

Published online February 28, 2022

Dentigerous Cyst with Double Teeth in a Dog

Sang-hun Park , Hyunjung Park , Youngmin Yun , Jongtae Cheong*

College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea

Correspondence to:*cjt123@jejunu.ac.kr

Received: October 19, 2021; Revised: December 31, 2021; Accepted: January 20, 2022

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

An 11-year-old spayed female Maltese dog presented with mass in oral cavity. On conscious oral examination, the right maxillary canine tooth was not visible, and a lesion has been suspected of mass existed in canine tooth area. The adjacent maxillary first premolar was buried in the lesion, with a little part of the tooth exceptions. On radiographic examination, the canine tooth was buried horizontally in the lesion, and the root part was adjacent to the first premolar tooth. Extraction was performed for a treatment. When the lesion was incised, the canine tooth was horizontal with the concave surface facing the palatal, and formed double teeth by fusing with the premolar tooth at the roots parts of the teeth. This report described the double teeth in the dentigerous cyst rarely reported in dogs.

Keywords: dog, double teeth, dentigerous cyst, fusion, concrescence.

The dentigerous cyst (DTC), one of the types of odontogenic cyst, develops from the remnants of the enamel organs of impacted teeth or reduced enamel epithelium (15,18). DTCs are the most common types of odontogenic cyst rarely found in dogs, and have been found associated with unerupted canine and first premolar tooth (15,17). These cysts have been found ranging in age from 6 months to 10 years in dogs, but are most commonly diagnosed about 2-3 year (6,20). DTCs are more commonly in some brachycephalic or small breeds, including Boxers, Pugs, Shih Tzus, Chihuahua and Maltese (3,17,18,20). In general, patient with DTC may show no clinical sign except for missing one or more teeth (2,7). However, pain can occur if the cyst becomes infected, and pathological fractures of the jawbone may occur if the cyst changes too large (2,7,10). Also DTC can invade the nasal cavities (7).

‘Double teeth’ is a common term used to describe any form where two teeth are conjoined by dental hard tissue (5,9,17). Double teeth are classified into gemination, concrescence and fusion based on whether they are originated from one or two tooth germs and the extent of shared dental hard tissue (5,12). In gemination, two teeth are budded from a single germ, and in the other two types, teeth are originated from two germs respectively (5). Concrescence differs to fusion due to the two teeth are joined only by the cementum (5,19). The purpose of this report is to describe a case with double teeth existed in the DTC.

An 11-year-old spayed female Maltese dog was referred to Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Jeju National University in complaint of mass in oral cavity. The owner noticed the lesion for 4 days before in the regular examination.

The patient was bright, alert, and responsive and had a body condition score 6/9 and normal vital sign on physical examination. On conscious oral examination, the right maxillary canine tooth (104) was not visualized and only a little part of the crown of the right maxillary first premolar tooth (105) was visible due to buried in the lesion (Fig. 1). A lesion that had been presumed to mass was in area of the canine tooth (104) and has dark mucous membrane color. Radiographically, the right maxillary canine tooth (104) placed in the lesion horizontally, and most of the right maxillary first premolar tooth (105) was belonged to the lesion (Fig. 2). An overlap was observed between the root parts of two teeth. On pre-anesthetic laboratory tests including a hematology, blood chemistry, and blood coagulation, the abnormalities were not found.

Figure 1.Oral photograph of the right maxillary teeth. The right maxillary canine tooth is not visualized and the lesion has dark membrane color. The only a little part of the right maxillary first premolar tooth can be seen.

Figure 2.Dorsoventral (A) and right lateral (B) views on radiograph of the skull. The right maxillary canine tooth, that is placed in the lesion horizontally, and the maxillary first premolar tooth overlap each other at roots (white arrow).

The patient was premedicated and induced with medetomidine (Domitor®, Pfizer, USA, 12 µg/kg), tiletamine and zolazepam (Zoletil50®, Virbac, France, 1.5 mg/kg), tramadol (Trodon®, Aju pharm, Korea, 0.9 mg/kg) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane (Ifran®, Hana pharm, Korea) and oxygen. For extracting the teeth, the softest part of the cyst was incised and a small amount of serosanguinous liquid was discharged from the cyst. In the cyst, the right maxillary canine tooth (104) was buried horizontally and combined with the right maxillary first premolar tooth (105) to form double teeth (Fig. 3). The double teeth were extracted and the cystic epithelium was curetted. The incision was closed with simple interrupted sutures. Cephalexin (Phalexin®, Dongwha, Korea, 20 mg/kg PO BID, 5 days) and meloxicam (Metacam®, Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany, 0.1 mg/kg PO BID, 2 days) were administered for postoperative medication. No abnormality of the patient was confirmed in the two weeks and one year follow-up through the telephone call respectively.

Figure 3.Intraoperative photograph of teeth in the cyst incised (A) and extracted double teeth (B). The maxillary canine tooth is aligned horizontally in the alveolus with the root facing distally and the concave surface facing palatally. The maxillary canine tooth and the maxillary first premolar tooth are united to form double teeth.

Unerupted tooth include impacted tooth and embedded tooth (1). Uneruption is most common in the first premolar in the mandible and the canine tooth (7,18,20). Impaction occurs due to physical obstruction during tooth eruption process, and embedded tooth caused by lack of eruption force (17). Misdirection of tooth aligned horizontally is one of these physical barriers, thus it causes tooth impaction (4). Infections or trauma that can alter the eruption process of the deciduous teeth, cause ectopic positioning or prevent permanent teeth from erupting during the normal physiological eruption period (8). The enamel-forming organ of the unerupted tooth can develop the odontogenic cyst (15,17). The incidence of cystic formation is 29% in impacted teeth in dogs (1). And DTCs made up 71% of odontogenic cysts in the dog (20). In this case, the maxillary canine tooth was horizontally aligned in the gingiva with the root facing distally and the concave surface facing palatally (Fig. 3). This ectopic positioning of the tooth due to congenital or acquired factors is thought to have caused the impacted tooth, which developed into a DTC.

Treatment of DTC is includes surgical extraction of unerupted tooth and curettage of cystic lining which, if remain, can cause recurrence (4,6,19). Also, the defective area can be filled with a cancellous bone graft (4,19). The prognosis for most DTCs is good with early noticing and extraction before the DTC damages to surrounding structure (7,11). In this case, surgical extraction of unerupted teeth and removal of the cystic epithelium were performed for treatment, and bone grafting did not performed as the remained defect was not large. And the progress in this case was good. The little degree of invasion of DTC into the surrounding tissues was considered to have contributed to this prognosis.

Gemination is the division of a single tooth during development, with a single root on the radiograph and more teeth in the arch than normal clinically (17). Fusion of teeth due to the union of adjacent tooth germs of developing teeth, results in combination at the crowns and/or roots (5,9,12). The lower number of crown of teeth can be seen with fusion of teeth (5,16). Concrescence differs from other types of double teeth due to the fact that it describes union of two or more fully formed teeth by only their cementum with no involvement of other structures (14,16). In this case the double teeth combined the right maxillary canine tooth (104) and the right maxillary first premolar tooth (105) are considered either one of fusion or concrescence. Since the patient was 11 years old, her teeth were already missing, so it would be difficult to judge by the number of teeth. On the surface, both of the combined teeth were fully formed respectively, and the combination occurred only near the root. So the double teeth were presumed to concrescence, but it couldn't be accurately distinguished based on the external form alone. If radiographs of the extracted double teeth had been taken, the type could be distinguished by whether the root canal is shared or not. But in this case, we had not known about the types of double teeth before, so we didn't take a radiograph of the extracted teeth. For this reason, a limitation of this report is thought to failure to make a definite diagnosis. However, both fusion and concrescence are a rare dental abnormality in human (9,12,13). Also, according to one report, these anomalies are considered to be rare, as few cases were reported in a total of over 18,000 cases during 20 years in dogs (5). Therefore, this case with this dental abnormality in DTC is thought to be meaningful as a report itself.

This case report describes diagnosis and treatment process of an 11-year-old Maltese dog with double teeth in DTC. Although this case not confirmed whether concrescence or fusion among the types of double teeth, it is considered a rare case because of the double teeth with DTC.

This work was supported by the 2021 education, research and student guidance grant funded by Jeju National University.

  1. Babbitt SG, Krakowski Volker M, Luskin IR. Incidence of radiographic cystic lesions associated with unerupted teeth in dogs. J Vet Dent 2016; 33: 226-233.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Baxter CJ. Bilateral mandibular dentigerous cysts in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 2004; 45: 210-212.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Bellei E, Ferro S, Zini E, Gracis M. A clinical, radiographic and histological study of unerupted teeth in dogs and cats: 73 cases (2001-2018). Front Vet Sci 2019; 6: 357.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  4. Bellows J. Oral surgical equipment, materials, and techniques. In: Bellows J, editor. Small animal dental equipment, materials and techniques. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 2004: 316-319.
    CrossRef
  5. Boy S, Crossley D, Steenkamp G. Developmental structural tooth defects in dogs - experience from veterinary dental referral practice and review of the literature. Front Vet Sci 2016; 3: 9.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  6. Chamberlain TP, Verstraete FJM. Clinical behavior and management of odontogenic cysts. In: Verstraete FJM, Lommer MJ, editors. Oral and maxillofacial surgery in dogs and cats. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier. 2012: 481-486.
    CrossRef
  7. D’Astous J. An overview of dentigerous cysts in dogs and cats. Can Vet J 2011; 52: 905-907.
  8. Dinoi MT, Marchetti E, Garagiola U, Caruso S, Mummolo S, Marzo G. Orthodontic treatment of an unerupted mandibular canine tooth in a patient with mixed dentition: a case report. J Med Case Rep 2016; 10: 170.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  9. Koszowski R, Waśkowska J, Kucharski G, Śmieszek-Wilczewska J. Double teeth: evaluation of 10-years of clinical material. Open Med 2014; 9: 254-263.
    CrossRef
  10. Lemmons MS, Gengler WR, Beebe DE. Diagnostic imaging in veterinary dental practice. Unerupted tooth resulting in a dentigerous cyst causing resorption of bone. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228: 1023-1024.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Lobprise HB. Dentigerous cysts. In: Lobprise HB, editor. Blackwell’s five-minute veterinary consult clinical companion: small animal dentistry. 3rd ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2021: 142-145.
    CrossRef
  12. Mallya S, Lam E. Dental anomalies. In: Mallya S, Lam E, editors. White and Pharoah’s oral radiology. 8th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier/Mosby. 2018: 997-1003.
  13. Neves FS, Rovaris K, Oliveira ML, Novaes PD, de Freitas DQ. Concrescence: assessment of case by periapical radiography, cone beam computed tomography and micro-computed tomography. N Y State Dent J 2014; 80: 21-23.
    CrossRef
  14. Pavlica Z, Erjavec V, Petelin M. Teeth abnormalities in the dog. Acta Vet Brno 2001; 70: 65-72.
    CrossRef
  15. Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ, Jordan RCK. Cysts of the jaws and neck. In: Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ, Jordan RCK, editors. Oral pathology: clinical pathologic correlations. 7th ed. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier. 2016: 250-252.
  16. Sharma U, Gulati A, Gill NC. Concrescent triplets involving primary anterior teeth. Contemp Clin Dent 2013; 4: 94-96.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Shope BH, Mitchell PQ, Carle D. Developmental pathology and pedodontology. In: Lobprise HB, Dodd JR, editors. Wiggs’s veterinary dentistry: principles and practice. 2nd ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2019: 66-70.
  18. Soukup JW, Lawrence JA, Pinkerton ME, Schwarz T. Computed tomography-assisted management of a mandibular dentigerous cyst in a dog with a nasal carcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009; 235: 710-714.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Verstraete FJM. Veterinary dentistry: self assessment colour review. London: Manson Publishing. 1999: 23-24.
    CrossRef
  20. Verstraete FJM, Zin BP, Kass PH, Cox DP, Jordan RC. Clinical signs and histologic findings in dogs with odontogenic cysts: 41 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011; 239: 1470-1476.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Article

Case Report

J Vet Clin 2022; 39(1): 23-27

Published online February 28, 2022 https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.1.23

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

Dentigerous Cyst with Double Teeth in a Dog

Sang-hun Park , Hyunjung Park , Youngmin Yun , Jongtae Cheong*

College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea

Correspondence to:*cjt123@jejunu.ac.kr

Received: October 19, 2021; Revised: December 31, 2021; Accepted: January 20, 2022

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

An 11-year-old spayed female Maltese dog presented with mass in oral cavity. On conscious oral examination, the right maxillary canine tooth was not visible, and a lesion has been suspected of mass existed in canine tooth area. The adjacent maxillary first premolar was buried in the lesion, with a little part of the tooth exceptions. On radiographic examination, the canine tooth was buried horizontally in the lesion, and the root part was adjacent to the first premolar tooth. Extraction was performed for a treatment. When the lesion was incised, the canine tooth was horizontal with the concave surface facing the palatal, and formed double teeth by fusing with the premolar tooth at the roots parts of the teeth. This report described the double teeth in the dentigerous cyst rarely reported in dogs.

Keywords: dog, double teeth, dentigerous cyst, fusion, concrescence.

Introduction

The dentigerous cyst (DTC), one of the types of odontogenic cyst, develops from the remnants of the enamel organs of impacted teeth or reduced enamel epithelium (15,18). DTCs are the most common types of odontogenic cyst rarely found in dogs, and have been found associated with unerupted canine and first premolar tooth (15,17). These cysts have been found ranging in age from 6 months to 10 years in dogs, but are most commonly diagnosed about 2-3 year (6,20). DTCs are more commonly in some brachycephalic or small breeds, including Boxers, Pugs, Shih Tzus, Chihuahua and Maltese (3,17,18,20). In general, patient with DTC may show no clinical sign except for missing one or more teeth (2,7). However, pain can occur if the cyst becomes infected, and pathological fractures of the jawbone may occur if the cyst changes too large (2,7,10). Also DTC can invade the nasal cavities (7).

‘Double teeth’ is a common term used to describe any form where two teeth are conjoined by dental hard tissue (5,9,17). Double teeth are classified into gemination, concrescence and fusion based on whether they are originated from one or two tooth germs and the extent of shared dental hard tissue (5,12). In gemination, two teeth are budded from a single germ, and in the other two types, teeth are originated from two germs respectively (5). Concrescence differs to fusion due to the two teeth are joined only by the cementum (5,19). The purpose of this report is to describe a case with double teeth existed in the DTC.

Case Report

An 11-year-old spayed female Maltese dog was referred to Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Jeju National University in complaint of mass in oral cavity. The owner noticed the lesion for 4 days before in the regular examination.

The patient was bright, alert, and responsive and had a body condition score 6/9 and normal vital sign on physical examination. On conscious oral examination, the right maxillary canine tooth (104) was not visualized and only a little part of the crown of the right maxillary first premolar tooth (105) was visible due to buried in the lesion (Fig. 1). A lesion that had been presumed to mass was in area of the canine tooth (104) and has dark mucous membrane color. Radiographically, the right maxillary canine tooth (104) placed in the lesion horizontally, and most of the right maxillary first premolar tooth (105) was belonged to the lesion (Fig. 2). An overlap was observed between the root parts of two teeth. On pre-anesthetic laboratory tests including a hematology, blood chemistry, and blood coagulation, the abnormalities were not found.

Figure 1. Oral photograph of the right maxillary teeth. The right maxillary canine tooth is not visualized and the lesion has dark membrane color. The only a little part of the right maxillary first premolar tooth can be seen.

Figure 2. Dorsoventral (A) and right lateral (B) views on radiograph of the skull. The right maxillary canine tooth, that is placed in the lesion horizontally, and the maxillary first premolar tooth overlap each other at roots (white arrow).

The patient was premedicated and induced with medetomidine (Domitor®, Pfizer, USA, 12 µg/kg), tiletamine and zolazepam (Zoletil50®, Virbac, France, 1.5 mg/kg), tramadol (Trodon®, Aju pharm, Korea, 0.9 mg/kg) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane (Ifran®, Hana pharm, Korea) and oxygen. For extracting the teeth, the softest part of the cyst was incised and a small amount of serosanguinous liquid was discharged from the cyst. In the cyst, the right maxillary canine tooth (104) was buried horizontally and combined with the right maxillary first premolar tooth (105) to form double teeth (Fig. 3). The double teeth were extracted and the cystic epithelium was curetted. The incision was closed with simple interrupted sutures. Cephalexin (Phalexin®, Dongwha, Korea, 20 mg/kg PO BID, 5 days) and meloxicam (Metacam®, Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany, 0.1 mg/kg PO BID, 2 days) were administered for postoperative medication. No abnormality of the patient was confirmed in the two weeks and one year follow-up through the telephone call respectively.

Figure 3. Intraoperative photograph of teeth in the cyst incised (A) and extracted double teeth (B). The maxillary canine tooth is aligned horizontally in the alveolus with the root facing distally and the concave surface facing palatally. The maxillary canine tooth and the maxillary first premolar tooth are united to form double teeth.

Discussion

Unerupted tooth include impacted tooth and embedded tooth (1). Uneruption is most common in the first premolar in the mandible and the canine tooth (7,18,20). Impaction occurs due to physical obstruction during tooth eruption process, and embedded tooth caused by lack of eruption force (17). Misdirection of tooth aligned horizontally is one of these physical barriers, thus it causes tooth impaction (4). Infections or trauma that can alter the eruption process of the deciduous teeth, cause ectopic positioning or prevent permanent teeth from erupting during the normal physiological eruption period (8). The enamel-forming organ of the unerupted tooth can develop the odontogenic cyst (15,17). The incidence of cystic formation is 29% in impacted teeth in dogs (1). And DTCs made up 71% of odontogenic cysts in the dog (20). In this case, the maxillary canine tooth was horizontally aligned in the gingiva with the root facing distally and the concave surface facing palatally (Fig. 3). This ectopic positioning of the tooth due to congenital or acquired factors is thought to have caused the impacted tooth, which developed into a DTC.

Treatment of DTC is includes surgical extraction of unerupted tooth and curettage of cystic lining which, if remain, can cause recurrence (4,6,19). Also, the defective area can be filled with a cancellous bone graft (4,19). The prognosis for most DTCs is good with early noticing and extraction before the DTC damages to surrounding structure (7,11). In this case, surgical extraction of unerupted teeth and removal of the cystic epithelium were performed for treatment, and bone grafting did not performed as the remained defect was not large. And the progress in this case was good. The little degree of invasion of DTC into the surrounding tissues was considered to have contributed to this prognosis.

Gemination is the division of a single tooth during development, with a single root on the radiograph and more teeth in the arch than normal clinically (17). Fusion of teeth due to the union of adjacent tooth germs of developing teeth, results in combination at the crowns and/or roots (5,9,12). The lower number of crown of teeth can be seen with fusion of teeth (5,16). Concrescence differs from other types of double teeth due to the fact that it describes union of two or more fully formed teeth by only their cementum with no involvement of other structures (14,16). In this case the double teeth combined the right maxillary canine tooth (104) and the right maxillary first premolar tooth (105) are considered either one of fusion or concrescence. Since the patient was 11 years old, her teeth were already missing, so it would be difficult to judge by the number of teeth. On the surface, both of the combined teeth were fully formed respectively, and the combination occurred only near the root. So the double teeth were presumed to concrescence, but it couldn't be accurately distinguished based on the external form alone. If radiographs of the extracted double teeth had been taken, the type could be distinguished by whether the root canal is shared or not. But in this case, we had not known about the types of double teeth before, so we didn't take a radiograph of the extracted teeth. For this reason, a limitation of this report is thought to failure to make a definite diagnosis. However, both fusion and concrescence are a rare dental abnormality in human (9,12,13). Also, according to one report, these anomalies are considered to be rare, as few cases were reported in a total of over 18,000 cases during 20 years in dogs (5). Therefore, this case with this dental abnormality in DTC is thought to be meaningful as a report itself.

Conclusions

This case report describes diagnosis and treatment process of an 11-year-old Maltese dog with double teeth in DTC. Although this case not confirmed whether concrescence or fusion among the types of double teeth, it is considered a rare case because of the double teeth with DTC.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the 2021 education, research and student guidance grant funded by Jeju National University.

Conflicts of Interest


The authors have no conflicting interests.

Fig 1.

Figure 1.Oral photograph of the right maxillary teeth. The right maxillary canine tooth is not visualized and the lesion has dark membrane color. The only a little part of the right maxillary first premolar tooth can be seen.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 23-27https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.1.23

Fig 2.

Figure 2.Dorsoventral (A) and right lateral (B) views on radiograph of the skull. The right maxillary canine tooth, that is placed in the lesion horizontally, and the maxillary first premolar tooth overlap each other at roots (white arrow).
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 23-27https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.1.23

Fig 3.

Figure 3.Intraoperative photograph of teeth in the cyst incised (A) and extracted double teeth (B). The maxillary canine tooth is aligned horizontally in the alveolus with the root facing distally and the concave surface facing palatally. The maxillary canine tooth and the maxillary first premolar tooth are united to form double teeth.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 23-27https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.1.23

References

  1. Babbitt SG, Krakowski Volker M, Luskin IR. Incidence of radiographic cystic lesions associated with unerupted teeth in dogs. J Vet Dent 2016; 33: 226-233.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Baxter CJ. Bilateral mandibular dentigerous cysts in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 2004; 45: 210-212.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Bellei E, Ferro S, Zini E, Gracis M. A clinical, radiographic and histological study of unerupted teeth in dogs and cats: 73 cases (2001-2018). Front Vet Sci 2019; 6: 357.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  4. Bellows J. Oral surgical equipment, materials, and techniques. In: Bellows J, editor. Small animal dental equipment, materials and techniques. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 2004: 316-319.
    CrossRef
  5. Boy S, Crossley D, Steenkamp G. Developmental structural tooth defects in dogs - experience from veterinary dental referral practice and review of the literature. Front Vet Sci 2016; 3: 9.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  6. Chamberlain TP, Verstraete FJM. Clinical behavior and management of odontogenic cysts. In: Verstraete FJM, Lommer MJ, editors. Oral and maxillofacial surgery in dogs and cats. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier. 2012: 481-486.
    CrossRef
  7. D’Astous J. An overview of dentigerous cysts in dogs and cats. Can Vet J 2011; 52: 905-907.
  8. Dinoi MT, Marchetti E, Garagiola U, Caruso S, Mummolo S, Marzo G. Orthodontic treatment of an unerupted mandibular canine tooth in a patient with mixed dentition: a case report. J Med Case Rep 2016; 10: 170.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  9. Koszowski R, Waśkowska J, Kucharski G, Śmieszek-Wilczewska J. Double teeth: evaluation of 10-years of clinical material. Open Med 2014; 9: 254-263.
    CrossRef
  10. Lemmons MS, Gengler WR, Beebe DE. Diagnostic imaging in veterinary dental practice. Unerupted tooth resulting in a dentigerous cyst causing resorption of bone. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228: 1023-1024.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Lobprise HB. Dentigerous cysts. In: Lobprise HB, editor. Blackwell’s five-minute veterinary consult clinical companion: small animal dentistry. 3rd ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2021: 142-145.
    CrossRef
  12. Mallya S, Lam E. Dental anomalies. In: Mallya S, Lam E, editors. White and Pharoah’s oral radiology. 8th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier/Mosby. 2018: 997-1003.
  13. Neves FS, Rovaris K, Oliveira ML, Novaes PD, de Freitas DQ. Concrescence: assessment of case by periapical radiography, cone beam computed tomography and micro-computed tomography. N Y State Dent J 2014; 80: 21-23.
    CrossRef
  14. Pavlica Z, Erjavec V, Petelin M. Teeth abnormalities in the dog. Acta Vet Brno 2001; 70: 65-72.
    CrossRef
  15. Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ, Jordan RCK. Cysts of the jaws and neck. In: Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ, Jordan RCK, editors. Oral pathology: clinical pathologic correlations. 7th ed. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier. 2016: 250-252.
  16. Sharma U, Gulati A, Gill NC. Concrescent triplets involving primary anterior teeth. Contemp Clin Dent 2013; 4: 94-96.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Shope BH, Mitchell PQ, Carle D. Developmental pathology and pedodontology. In: Lobprise HB, Dodd JR, editors. Wiggs’s veterinary dentistry: principles and practice. 2nd ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2019: 66-70.
  18. Soukup JW, Lawrence JA, Pinkerton ME, Schwarz T. Computed tomography-assisted management of a mandibular dentigerous cyst in a dog with a nasal carcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009; 235: 710-714.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Verstraete FJM. Veterinary dentistry: self assessment colour review. London: Manson Publishing. 1999: 23-24.
    CrossRef
  20. Verstraete FJM, Zin BP, Kass PH, Cox DP, Jordan RC. Clinical signs and histologic findings in dogs with odontogenic cysts: 41 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011; 239: 1470-1476.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Vol.41 No.1 February 2024

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