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J Vet Clin 2022; 39(3): 126-130

https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.3.126

Published online June 30, 2022

Apocrine Gland Adenocarcinoma in a Djungarian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus)

Sungryong Kim1 , Sunghyun S. Hong2 , Gon-Hyung Kim3 , Ki-Jeong Na1

1Laboratory of Veterinary Laboratory Medicine and Wildlife Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
2Cheongju Zoo, Cheongju 28311, Korea
3Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea

Correspondence to:*sigol@cbnu.ac.kr

Received: February 9, 2022; Accepted: March 25, 2022

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

A 17-month-old intact male Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) was presented with an axillary mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass showed a malignant epithelial cell tumor. Histopathological examination of the surgically removed mass confirmed a complex apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. Twenty days postoperatively, the mass recurred in the same area, and the patient died while waiting for the second surgical removal. This is the first report of the cytology, histopathology, and postoperative recurrence of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in a Djungarian hamster.

Keywords: apocrine gland adenocarcinoma, cytology, Djungarian hamster, hamster, histopathology, Phodopus sungorus.

In clinical practice, a variety of neoplastic conditions are diagnosed in small mammals including rodents and ferrets. However, only a few cases of tumors are reported in the literature. Moreover, successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors are reported much less frequently in rodents than in other companion animals (7). Apocrine glands are tubular or cystic coiled glands located throughout the haired areas of skin (3). Apocrine sweat gland tumors are uncommon in dogs and cats and can be benign or malignant (1,6). Apocrine sweat gland tumors account for 0.2% to 11.0% of all skin neoplasms in dogs and 0% to 6.5% of all skin neoplasms in cats, and only one case has been reported in a golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) (10). The sites where this tumor frequently occurs in dogs are the extremities, neck, chest, and head, and most occur in the form of solitary tumors; however, multiple tumors are also possible. In dogs and cats, the majority of these tumors occur between 6 and 11 years and between 6 and 17 years of age, respectively. Local invasion of apocrine gland carcinoma is common, while distant metastasis is rare (4,9). Although a diagnosis of an apocrine gland tumor can be made by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, histopathology is required for definitive characterization. The cytological features of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma are that it is highly exfoliative and has cohesive sheets of cells with moderate-sized nuclei and a pale glandular cytoplasm, and these cells are slightly angular (2).

In this case report, we discuss the cytological and histological findings of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

A 17-month-old intact male Djungarian hamster weighing 43 grams presented with a solid mass (1 × 1 cm) of the axilla (Fig. 1). The hamster lived in a plastic box cage (60 × 45 × 45 cm) but roamed freely about the house when the owner was at home. He was fed commercial hamster food ad libitum and nuts as treats. The owner first noticed the mass approximately two months prior to presentation at the veterinary hospital. The size of the mass rapidly increased approximately one week prior to presentation. On physical examination, the heart rate was 288 beats/min, and the body condition score (BCS) was confirmed to be 3 out of 5 based on the BCS index for the rat as a laboratory animal. There were no other clinical signs or abnormal findings.

Figure 1.Gross appearance of an axillary mass in a hamster.

For differential diagnosis, an FNA biopsy procedure was performed. On cytological examination, there were epithelial cell clusters with high cellularity, a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, marked nucleoli, and coarse chromatin patterns as well as moderate anisocytosis and anisokaryosis (Fig. 2). The tumor mass was removed with a cancer surgery procedure. One hour before surgery, tramadol (Tramadol HCl injection; Shinpoong; 10 mg/kg SC) was administered for pain management. Anesthesia was induced with 5% isoflurane (Terrell; Piramal Critical Care) in 100% oxygen delivered via a mask. Anesthesia was maintained with 2% isoflurane in 100% oxygen delivered via a mask. During surgery, heart rate was maintained within 200-250 beats/min. On discharge, enrofloxacin (Baytril; Elanco; 5 mg/kg PO twice daily), carprofen (Ashicarp; Ashish Life Science; 5 mg/kg PO twice daily), and tramadol (Tridol; Yoohan; 20 mg/kg PO as needed) were administered for 7 days for postoperative control of infection and pain.

Figure 2.Fine needle aspiration cytology of the axillary mass. (A) A coarse chromatin pattern (asterisk) and marked nucleoli (arrow) and (B) moderate anisocytosis and a high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio were found. Modified Wright-Giemsa stain, ×1,000.

The removed tissue sample (Fig. 3) was fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin and submitted for histopathologic examination. Complete histopathology revealed that the neoplastic foci were well-circumscribed with loose connective tissue and composed of a large area of acinar or tubular pattern structures, and adjacent cellular elements originated from myoepithelial cells. Variable sized and shaped neoplastic glandular tubules that resembled apocrine glands were multifocally proliferated in the dermis and cutis, and they formed poorly or well-differentiated tubules. The tubules were well-circumscribed with fibrous tissue. Most of the tubules were lined with round to oval-shaped epithelium with dark cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei, typical apical blebbing, and high numbers of mitotic figures, and they showed multifocal papillary growth into the lumen and contained small amounts of eosinophilic or basophilic protein fluids or degenerate cellular debris. These neoplastic cells had a strong tendency to invade adjacent tissues. Proliferated myoepithelial cells with an oval or spindle cell morphology produced basophilic mucinous material in multifocal small areas adjacent to the neoplastic glands. Multifocal severe necrosis was also accompanied by cutaneous mass formation. These histopathologic features were consistent with a complex apocrine adenocarcinoma (Fig. 4).

Figure 3.Macroscopic findings of the axillary mass after surgical resection. The mass measured approximately 1.5 × 1.5 cm in diameter.

Figure 4.Histopathologic examination of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. (A) Low-power histopathology revealed a well-circumscribed mass. H&E stain, ×40. (B) Variably sized neoplastic cells with anisocytosis, marked nucleoli (arrow), and mitosis (circle). H&E stain, ×400.

The wound healed well postoperatively without any complications, and the patient’s appetite and vitality remained normal. Sutures were removed 14 days postoperatively. Twenty days postoperatively, another mass was palpated in the same area. Considering the histopathological findings of the first resected mass, the second mass was presumed to be a recurrence of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. Prednisolone (Solondo; Yoohan; 2 mg/kg PO twice daily), famotidine (Famotidine Tab; Nelson; 0.5 mg/kg PO twice daily), ursodeoxycholic acid (Ursa; Daewoong; 10 mg/kg PO twice daily), and silymarin (Legalon; Bukwang Pharm; 25 mg/kg PO twice daily) were administered for conservative therapy. Twenty-four days postoperatively, the patient experienced a sudden decrease in appetite, and 27 days postoperatively, the patient expired.

This report describes a case of complex axillary apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in a Djungarian hamster. This patient was diagnosed with a malignant epithelial cell tumor by FNA cytology, and the mass was surgically removed.

Information about tumors in small mammals is lacking due to the small size of the patients, paucity of information on reference ranges, and difficulty of sampling (7). Excision of skin tumors should include the tumor and wide margins of normal tissue in three dimensions. For malignant tumors, a margin of more than 2 to 3 cm may be necessary for complete local excision (5). However, the body size of the patient was small, and the mass was located in the axillary lesion. For these reasons, aggressive removal of the surrounding tissues would have caused excessive loss of anatomical function of surrounding structures, such as the forelimbs and head. In addition, chemotherapy protocols for apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in hamsters have not been established; thus, chemotherapy could not be attempted.

According to a retrospective study about apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in dogs, the survival time after tumor resection was 6 to 36 months, but there were some limitations because the median and mean values were unknown (6). Another study about anal sac adenocarcinoma in dogs suggested that the presence of lumbar lymphadenopathy and lymph node dissection were both negative prognostic factors. However, in this study, the integrity of the surgical resection was not significantly related to survival (8).

In the case involving a golden hamster, there was no information about the age, body weight, disease-free survival time, or timing of recurrence of the second tumor. However, the patient had a total of three tumor recurrences, and considering that the patient was ultimately euthanized, even if surgical removal proceeded according to principle, there is a possibility of recurrence similar to this report (10). Although it depends on the literature, if the average lifespan of a dog is 15 years and that of a Djungarian hamster is 1.5 years, as a simple comparison, 1 month for a hamster may be similar to 10 months for a dog. Thus, nonsurgical alternatives such as supportive therapy, even considering the life expectancy of hamsters, should be considered. Surgical removal of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in hamsters is not recommended; therefore, it would be good to consider chemotherapy. Carboplatin, chlorambucil, prednisone, cisplatin, toceranib phosphate, and doxorubicin have been used as chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in dogs (8). Among them, chlorambucil, prednisone, and toceranib phosphate are orally administered drugs; thus, they can be applied in hamsters. In the future, research on therapeutic doses of chemotherapeutic drugs for hamsters is necessary.

In dogs, the survival time after apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma resection is 6 to 36 months. However, in this hamster, the tumor recurred three weeks postoperatively; thus, the palliative effect was insufficient. Considering the one case report of a golden hamster and the patient in this study, surgical removal of a tumor may not result in extending the life span of the patient. Nonsurgical alternatives such as supportive therapy should thus be considered.

This results was supported by ‘Regional Innovation Strategy (RIS)’ through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (MOE) (2021RIS-001(1345341783).

  1. Clifford CA, de Lorimier LP, Fan TM, Garrett LD. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic tumors. In: Miller W, Griffin C, Campbell K, editors. Muller and Kirk’s small animal dermatology. 7th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2001: 774-843.
  2. Fisher DJ. Cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. In: Valenciano AC, Cowell RL, editors. Cowell and Tyler’s diagnostic cytology and hematology of the dog and cat. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2014: 74-101.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Hargis AM, Ginn PE. The integument. In: McGavin D, Zachary JF, editors. Pathologic basis of veterinary disease. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2007: 1107-1261.
  4. Hauck ML. Tumors of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, Page RL, editors. Withrow & MacEwen’s small animal clinical oncology. 5th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2013: 305-320.
    CrossRef
  5. Hedlund CS. Surgery of the integumentary system. In: Fossum TW, Hedlund CS, Johnson AL, Schulz KS, Seim HB, Willard MD, et al., editors. Small animal surgery. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2013: 159-259.
  6. Kalaher KM, Anderson WI, Scott DW. Neoplasms of the apocrine sweat glands in 44 dogs and 10 cats. Vet Rec 1990; 127: 400-403.
  7. Orr H. Rodents: neoplastic and endocrine disease. In: Keeble E, Meredith A, editors. BSAVA manual of rodents and ferrets. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association. 2009: 181-192.
    CrossRef
  8. Potanas CP, Padgett S, Gamblin RM. Surgical excision of anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinomas with and without adjunctive chemotherapy in dogs: 42 cases (2005-2011). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015; 246: 877-884.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Simko E, Wilcock BP, Yager JA. A retrospective study of 44 canine apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas. Can Vet J 2003; 44: 38-42.
  10. Urayama F, Sato T, Shibuya H, Shirai W, Matsutani M, Yamazaki R. Apocrine adenocarcinoma in a golden hamster. J Vet Med Sci 2001; 63: 1249-1252.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Article

Case Report

J Vet Clin 2022; 39(3): 126-130

Published online June 30, 2022 https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.3.126

Copyright © The Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics.

Apocrine Gland Adenocarcinoma in a Djungarian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus)

Sungryong Kim1 , Sunghyun S. Hong2 , Gon-Hyung Kim3 , Ki-Jeong Na1

1Laboratory of Veterinary Laboratory Medicine and Wildlife Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
2Cheongju Zoo, Cheongju 28311, Korea
3Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea

Correspondence to:*sigol@cbnu.ac.kr

Received: February 9, 2022; Accepted: March 25, 2022

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A 17-month-old intact male Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) was presented with an axillary mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass showed a malignant epithelial cell tumor. Histopathological examination of the surgically removed mass confirmed a complex apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. Twenty days postoperatively, the mass recurred in the same area, and the patient died while waiting for the second surgical removal. This is the first report of the cytology, histopathology, and postoperative recurrence of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in a Djungarian hamster.

Keywords: apocrine gland adenocarcinoma, cytology, Djungarian hamster, hamster, histopathology, Phodopus sungorus.

Introduction

In clinical practice, a variety of neoplastic conditions are diagnosed in small mammals including rodents and ferrets. However, only a few cases of tumors are reported in the literature. Moreover, successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors are reported much less frequently in rodents than in other companion animals (7). Apocrine glands are tubular or cystic coiled glands located throughout the haired areas of skin (3). Apocrine sweat gland tumors are uncommon in dogs and cats and can be benign or malignant (1,6). Apocrine sweat gland tumors account for 0.2% to 11.0% of all skin neoplasms in dogs and 0% to 6.5% of all skin neoplasms in cats, and only one case has been reported in a golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) (10). The sites where this tumor frequently occurs in dogs are the extremities, neck, chest, and head, and most occur in the form of solitary tumors; however, multiple tumors are also possible. In dogs and cats, the majority of these tumors occur between 6 and 11 years and between 6 and 17 years of age, respectively. Local invasion of apocrine gland carcinoma is common, while distant metastasis is rare (4,9). Although a diagnosis of an apocrine gland tumor can be made by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, histopathology is required for definitive characterization. The cytological features of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma are that it is highly exfoliative and has cohesive sheets of cells with moderate-sized nuclei and a pale glandular cytoplasm, and these cells are slightly angular (2).

In this case report, we discuss the cytological and histological findings of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

Case Report

A 17-month-old intact male Djungarian hamster weighing 43 grams presented with a solid mass (1 × 1 cm) of the axilla (Fig. 1). The hamster lived in a plastic box cage (60 × 45 × 45 cm) but roamed freely about the house when the owner was at home. He was fed commercial hamster food ad libitum and nuts as treats. The owner first noticed the mass approximately two months prior to presentation at the veterinary hospital. The size of the mass rapidly increased approximately one week prior to presentation. On physical examination, the heart rate was 288 beats/min, and the body condition score (BCS) was confirmed to be 3 out of 5 based on the BCS index for the rat as a laboratory animal. There were no other clinical signs or abnormal findings.

Figure 1. Gross appearance of an axillary mass in a hamster.

For differential diagnosis, an FNA biopsy procedure was performed. On cytological examination, there were epithelial cell clusters with high cellularity, a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, marked nucleoli, and coarse chromatin patterns as well as moderate anisocytosis and anisokaryosis (Fig. 2). The tumor mass was removed with a cancer surgery procedure. One hour before surgery, tramadol (Tramadol HCl injection; Shinpoong; 10 mg/kg SC) was administered for pain management. Anesthesia was induced with 5% isoflurane (Terrell; Piramal Critical Care) in 100% oxygen delivered via a mask. Anesthesia was maintained with 2% isoflurane in 100% oxygen delivered via a mask. During surgery, heart rate was maintained within 200-250 beats/min. On discharge, enrofloxacin (Baytril; Elanco; 5 mg/kg PO twice daily), carprofen (Ashicarp; Ashish Life Science; 5 mg/kg PO twice daily), and tramadol (Tridol; Yoohan; 20 mg/kg PO as needed) were administered for 7 days for postoperative control of infection and pain.

Figure 2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the axillary mass. (A) A coarse chromatin pattern (asterisk) and marked nucleoli (arrow) and (B) moderate anisocytosis and a high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio were found. Modified Wright-Giemsa stain, ×1,000.

The removed tissue sample (Fig. 3) was fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin and submitted for histopathologic examination. Complete histopathology revealed that the neoplastic foci were well-circumscribed with loose connective tissue and composed of a large area of acinar or tubular pattern structures, and adjacent cellular elements originated from myoepithelial cells. Variable sized and shaped neoplastic glandular tubules that resembled apocrine glands were multifocally proliferated in the dermis and cutis, and they formed poorly or well-differentiated tubules. The tubules were well-circumscribed with fibrous tissue. Most of the tubules were lined with round to oval-shaped epithelium with dark cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei, typical apical blebbing, and high numbers of mitotic figures, and they showed multifocal papillary growth into the lumen and contained small amounts of eosinophilic or basophilic protein fluids or degenerate cellular debris. These neoplastic cells had a strong tendency to invade adjacent tissues. Proliferated myoepithelial cells with an oval or spindle cell morphology produced basophilic mucinous material in multifocal small areas adjacent to the neoplastic glands. Multifocal severe necrosis was also accompanied by cutaneous mass formation. These histopathologic features were consistent with a complex apocrine adenocarcinoma (Fig. 4).

Figure 3. Macroscopic findings of the axillary mass after surgical resection. The mass measured approximately 1.5 × 1.5 cm in diameter.

Figure 4. Histopathologic examination of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. (A) Low-power histopathology revealed a well-circumscribed mass. H&E stain, ×40. (B) Variably sized neoplastic cells with anisocytosis, marked nucleoli (arrow), and mitosis (circle). H&E stain, ×400.

The wound healed well postoperatively without any complications, and the patient’s appetite and vitality remained normal. Sutures were removed 14 days postoperatively. Twenty days postoperatively, another mass was palpated in the same area. Considering the histopathological findings of the first resected mass, the second mass was presumed to be a recurrence of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. Prednisolone (Solondo; Yoohan; 2 mg/kg PO twice daily), famotidine (Famotidine Tab; Nelson; 0.5 mg/kg PO twice daily), ursodeoxycholic acid (Ursa; Daewoong; 10 mg/kg PO twice daily), and silymarin (Legalon; Bukwang Pharm; 25 mg/kg PO twice daily) were administered for conservative therapy. Twenty-four days postoperatively, the patient experienced a sudden decrease in appetite, and 27 days postoperatively, the patient expired.

Discussion

This report describes a case of complex axillary apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in a Djungarian hamster. This patient was diagnosed with a malignant epithelial cell tumor by FNA cytology, and the mass was surgically removed.

Information about tumors in small mammals is lacking due to the small size of the patients, paucity of information on reference ranges, and difficulty of sampling (7). Excision of skin tumors should include the tumor and wide margins of normal tissue in three dimensions. For malignant tumors, a margin of more than 2 to 3 cm may be necessary for complete local excision (5). However, the body size of the patient was small, and the mass was located in the axillary lesion. For these reasons, aggressive removal of the surrounding tissues would have caused excessive loss of anatomical function of surrounding structures, such as the forelimbs and head. In addition, chemotherapy protocols for apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in hamsters have not been established; thus, chemotherapy could not be attempted.

According to a retrospective study about apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in dogs, the survival time after tumor resection was 6 to 36 months, but there were some limitations because the median and mean values were unknown (6). Another study about anal sac adenocarcinoma in dogs suggested that the presence of lumbar lymphadenopathy and lymph node dissection were both negative prognostic factors. However, in this study, the integrity of the surgical resection was not significantly related to survival (8).

In the case involving a golden hamster, there was no information about the age, body weight, disease-free survival time, or timing of recurrence of the second tumor. However, the patient had a total of three tumor recurrences, and considering that the patient was ultimately euthanized, even if surgical removal proceeded according to principle, there is a possibility of recurrence similar to this report (10). Although it depends on the literature, if the average lifespan of a dog is 15 years and that of a Djungarian hamster is 1.5 years, as a simple comparison, 1 month for a hamster may be similar to 10 months for a dog. Thus, nonsurgical alternatives such as supportive therapy, even considering the life expectancy of hamsters, should be considered. Surgical removal of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in hamsters is not recommended; therefore, it would be good to consider chemotherapy. Carboplatin, chlorambucil, prednisone, cisplatin, toceranib phosphate, and doxorubicin have been used as chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in dogs (8). Among them, chlorambucil, prednisone, and toceranib phosphate are orally administered drugs; thus, they can be applied in hamsters. In the future, research on therapeutic doses of chemotherapeutic drugs for hamsters is necessary.

Conclusions

In dogs, the survival time after apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma resection is 6 to 36 months. However, in this hamster, the tumor recurred three weeks postoperatively; thus, the palliative effect was insufficient. Considering the one case report of a golden hamster and the patient in this study, surgical removal of a tumor may not result in extending the life span of the patient. Nonsurgical alternatives such as supportive therapy should thus be considered.

Acknowledgements

This results was supported by ‘Regional Innovation Strategy (RIS)’ through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (MOE) (2021RIS-001(1345341783).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors have no conflicting interests.

Fig 1.

Figure 1.Gross appearance of an axillary mass in a hamster.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 126-130https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.3.126

Fig 2.

Figure 2.Fine needle aspiration cytology of the axillary mass. (A) A coarse chromatin pattern (asterisk) and marked nucleoli (arrow) and (B) moderate anisocytosis and a high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio were found. Modified Wright-Giemsa stain, ×1,000.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 126-130https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.3.126

Fig 3.

Figure 3.Macroscopic findings of the axillary mass after surgical resection. The mass measured approximately 1.5 × 1.5 cm in diameter.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 126-130https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.3.126

Fig 4.

Figure 4.Histopathologic examination of apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. (A) Low-power histopathology revealed a well-circumscribed mass. H&E stain, ×40. (B) Variably sized neoplastic cells with anisocytosis, marked nucleoli (arrow), and mitosis (circle). H&E stain, ×400.
Journal of Veterinary Clinics 2022; 39: 126-130https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2022.39.3.126

References

  1. Clifford CA, de Lorimier LP, Fan TM, Garrett LD. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic tumors. In: Miller W, Griffin C, Campbell K, editors. Muller and Kirk’s small animal dermatology. 7th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2001: 774-843.
  2. Fisher DJ. Cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. In: Valenciano AC, Cowell RL, editors. Cowell and Tyler’s diagnostic cytology and hematology of the dog and cat. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2014: 74-101.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Hargis AM, Ginn PE. The integument. In: McGavin D, Zachary JF, editors. Pathologic basis of veterinary disease. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2007: 1107-1261.
  4. Hauck ML. Tumors of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, Page RL, editors. Withrow & MacEwen’s small animal clinical oncology. 5th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2013: 305-320.
    CrossRef
  5. Hedlund CS. Surgery of the integumentary system. In: Fossum TW, Hedlund CS, Johnson AL, Schulz KS, Seim HB, Willard MD, et al., editors. Small animal surgery. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2013: 159-259.
  6. Kalaher KM, Anderson WI, Scott DW. Neoplasms of the apocrine sweat glands in 44 dogs and 10 cats. Vet Rec 1990; 127: 400-403.
  7. Orr H. Rodents: neoplastic and endocrine disease. In: Keeble E, Meredith A, editors. BSAVA manual of rodents and ferrets. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association. 2009: 181-192.
    CrossRef
  8. Potanas CP, Padgett S, Gamblin RM. Surgical excision of anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinomas with and without adjunctive chemotherapy in dogs: 42 cases (2005-2011). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015; 246: 877-884.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Simko E, Wilcock BP, Yager JA. A retrospective study of 44 canine apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas. Can Vet J 2003; 44: 38-42.
  10. Urayama F, Sato T, Shibuya H, Shirai W, Matsutani M, Yamazaki R. Apocrine adenocarcinoma in a golden hamster. J Vet Med Sci 2001; 63: 1249-1252.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Vol.39 No.4 August, 2022

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